CEDAW & Pakistan

WHAT CEDAW IS?

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979 by the UN General Assembly, is often described as an international bill of rights for women.  Consisting of a preamble and 30 articles, it defines what constitutes discrimination against women and sets up an agenda for national action to end such discrimination.

The Convention defines discrimination against women as “…any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.”

By accepting the Convention, States commit themselves to undertake a series of measures to end discrimination against women in all forms, including:

  • to incorporate the principle of equality of men and women in their legal system, abolish all discriminatory laws and adopt appropriate ones prohibiting discrimination against women;
  • to establish tribunals and other public institutions to ensure the effective protection of women against discrimination; and
  • to ensure elimination of all acts of discrimination against women by persons, organizations or enterprises.

The Convention provides the basis for realizing equality between women and men through ensuring women’s equal access to, and equal opportunities in, political and public life — including the right to vote and to stand for election — as well as education, health and employment.  States parties agree to take all appropriate measures, including legislation and temporary special measures, so that women can enjoy all their human rights and fundamental freedoms.

The Convention is the only human rights treaty which affirms the reproductive rights of women and targets culture and tradition as influential forces shaping gender roles and family relations.  It affirms women’s rights to acquire, change or retain their nationality and the nationality of their children.  States parties also agree to take appropriate measures against all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of women.

Countries that have ratified or acceded to the Convention are legally bound to put its provisions into practice.  They are also committed to submit national reports, at least every four years, on measures they have taken to comply with their treaty obligations.

BACKGROUND

OnDecember 18, 1979, the United Nations adopted the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). In 1979, the General Assembly adopted the Women’s Convention. As of December 1999, 165 countries have ratified the Convention. In June 1997 the Clinton Administration informed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee of its priorities for ratification of international treaties in the 105th Congress. TheUnited Stateswas active in drafting the Convention and signed it onJuly 17, 1980. It was transmitted to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in November 1980. In the summer of 1990, the Committee held hearings on the Convention. In the spring of 1993, sixty-eight senators signed a letter to President Clinton, asking him to take the necessary steps to ratify the Women’s Convention. In June 1993, Secretary of State Warren Christopher announced at the World Conference on Human Rights inViennathat the Administration would move on the Women’s Convention and other human rights treaties.

In September 1994, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee reported out favorably on the Convention, by a vote of 13 to 5 (with one abstention). Unfortunately, this occurred in the last days of the Congressional session, when several senators put a hold on the Convention, thereby blocking it from the Senate floor during the 103rd Congress. When the new Senate convened in January 1995, the Convention reverted to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The committee has taken no action since then.

Importance of U.S. Ratification The Convention provides a universal definition of discrimination against women that provides a basis for every government’s domestic and foreign policy to combat discrimination. As one of the few nations that have failed to ratify the Women’s Convention, theUnited Statescompromises its credibility as a leader for human rights. TheUnited Statesmade ratification of the Women’s Convention by the year 2000 one of its public commitments at the UN Conferences on Women inBeijingin September 1995. TheUnited Statesmust keep that commitment.

The Women’s Convention is a tool that women around the world are using in their struggle against the effects of discrimination: Violence against women, poverty, lack of legal status, no right to inherit or own property, access to credit, etc. Women need theUnited Statesto speak loudly and clearly in support of the Women’s Convention so that the Convention becomes a stronger instrument in support of their struggles. WithoutUSratification, other governments can more easily ignore the Convention’s mandate and their obligations under it. Violence against women seriously inhibits women’s ability to enjoy rights and freedoms on a basis of equality with men. But violence against women itself emerges from the phenomenon of discrimination against women which makes them a target of violence. To effectively combat the crime of violence against women,USpolicy must address this linkage of discrimination and violence. By ratifying the Women’s Convention, theUnited Stateswill reinforce its commitment to eliminate discrimination and, therefore, move closer to effectively combating violence against women. TheUScould bring the benefit ofUSexperience in combating discrimination against women to this international forum.

OVERVIEW OF DIFFERENT ARTICLES OF CEDAW

ARTICLE 1

ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION

For the purposes of the present Convention, the term “discrimination against women” shall mean any distinction, exclusion or restriction made on the basis of sex which has the effect or purpose of impairing or nullifying the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by women, irrespective of their marital status, on a basis of equality of men and women, of human rights and fundamental freedoms in the political, economic, social, cultural, civil or any other field.

ARTICLE 2:

LEGAL PROVISIONS

States Parties condemn discrimination against women in all its forms, agree to pursue by all appropriate means and without delay a policy of eliminating discrimination against women and, to this end, undertake:

a. To embody the principle of the equality of men and women in their national constitutions or other appropriate legislation if not yet incorporated therein and to ensure, through law and other appropriate means, the practical realization of this principle;

b. To adopt appropriate legislation and other measures, including sanctions where appropriate, prohibiting all discrimination against women;

c. To establish legal protection of the rights of women on an equal basis with men and to ensure through competent national tribunals and other public institutions the effective protection of women against any act of discrimination;

d. To refrain from engaging in any act or practice of discrimination against women and to ensure that public authorities and institutions shall act in conformity with this obligation;

e. To take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women by any person, organization or enterprise;

f. To take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to modify or abolish existing laws, regulations, customs and practices which constitute discrimination against women;

g. To repeal all national penal provisions which constitute discrimination against women.

ARTICLE 3:

ELIMINATION OF DISCRIMINATION

States Patties shall take in all fields, in particular in the political, social, economic and cultural fields, all appropriate measures, including legislation, to ensure the full development and advancement of women, for the purpose of guaranteeing them the exercise and enjoyment of human rights and fundamental freedoms on a basis of equality with men.

ARTICLE 4:

TEMPORARY SPECIAL MEASURES

1. Adoption by States Parties of temporary special measures aimed at accelerating de facto equality between men and women shall not be considered discrimination as defined in the present Convention, but shall in no way entail as a consequence the maintenance of unequal or separate standards; these measures shall be discontinued when the objectives of equality and treatment have been achieved.

2. Adoption by States Parties of special measures including those measures contained in the present Convention, aimed at protecting maternity shall not be considered discriminatory.

ARTICLE 5:

STEREOTYPING AND PREJUDICES

States Parties should take all appropriate measures:

a. To modify the social and cultural patterns of conduct of men and women, with a view to achieving the elimination of prejudices and customary and all other practices which are based on the idea of the inferiority or the superiority of either of the sexes or on stereotyped roles for men and women;

b. To ensure that family education includes a proper understanding of maternity as a social function and the recognition of the common responsibility of men and women in the upbringing and development of their children, it being understood that the interest of the children is the primordial consideration in all cases.

ARTICLE 6:

EXPLOITATION OF WOMEN

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women.

ARTICLE 7:

WOMEN IN POLITICS AND PUBLIC LIFE

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the political and public life of the country, and in particular, shall ensure to women, on equal terms with men, the right

A. to vote in all elections and public referenda and to be eligible for election to all publicly elected bodies; b. to participate in the formulation  of government policy and the implementation thereof and to hold public office and perform all public functions at all levels of government;

C. to participate in non-governmental organizations and associations concerned with the public and political life of the country.

ARTICLE 8

WOMEN AS INTERNATIONAL REPRESENTATIVES

States Parties shall take appropriate measures to ensure women, on quall terms with men and without any discrimination, the opportunity to represent their Governments at the international level and to participate  n the work of international organizations.

ARTICLE 9

NATIONALITY

1. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men to acquire, change or retain their nationality. They shall ensure in particular that neither marriage to an alien nor change of nationality by the husband during marriage shall automatically change the nationality of the wife, render her stateless or force upon her the nationality of the husband.

2. States Parties shall grant women equal rights with men with respect to the nationality of their children.

ARTICLE 10

EDUCATION

States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in order to ensure to them equal rights with men in the field of education and in particular to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:

a. The same conditions for career and vocational guidance for access to studies and for the achievement of diplomas in educational establishments of all categories. In rural as well as in urban areas, this equality shall be ensured in pre-school, general, technical, professional and higher technical education, as well as in all types of vocational training;

b. Access to the same curricula, the same examinations, teaching staff with qualifications of the same standard and school premises and equipment of the same quality;

c. The elimination of any stereotyped concept of the roles of men and women at all levels and in all forms of education by encouraging coeducation and other types of education which will help to achieve this aim and, in particular, by the revision of textbooks and school programmes and the adaptation of teaching methods;

d. The same opportunities to benefit from scholarships and other study grants;

e. The same opportunities for access to programmes of continuing education, including adult and functional literacy programmes, particularly those aimed at reducing, at the earliest possible time, any gap in education existing between men and women;

f. The reduction of female student drop-out rates and the organization of programmers for girls and women who have left school prematurely;

g. The same opportunities to participate actively in sports and physical education;

h. Access to specific educational information to help to ensure the health and well-being of amities, including information and advice on family planning.

ARTICLE 11

EMPLOYMENT, HEALTH & SAFETY AND SOCIAL WELFARE

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of employment in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the same rights, in particular:

a. The right to work as an inalienable right of all human beings;

b. The right to the same employment opportunities, including the application of the same criteria for selection in matters of employment;

c. The right to free choice of profession and employment, the right to promotion, job security and all benefits and conditions of service and the right to receive vocational training and retraining, including apprenticeships, advanced vocational training and recurrent training;

d. The right to equal remuneration, including benefits, and to Equal treatment in respect of work of equal value, as well as Equality of treatment in the evaluation of the quality of work.

e. The right to social security, particularly in cases of Retirement,  unemployment, sickness, invalidity and old age And other incapacity to work, as well as the right to paid Leave;

f. The right to protection of health and to safety in working Conditions, including the safeguarding of the function of Reproduction.

2. In order to prevent discrimination against women on the grounds of Marriage or maternity and to ensure their effective right to work, States Parties shall take appropriate measures:

a. To prohibit, subject to the imposition of sanctions, dismissal

On the grounds of pregnancy or of maternity leave and

Discrimination in dismissals on the basis of marital status;

b. To introduce maternity leave with pay or with comparable social benefits without loss of former employment, seniority or social allowances;

c. To encourage the provision of the necessary supporting social services to enable parents to combine family obligations with work responsibilities and participation in public life, in particular through promoting the establishment

And development of a network of childcare facilities;

d. To provide special protection to women during pregnancy in types of work proved to be harmful to them.

ARTICLE 12

WOMEN’S HEALTH

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in the field of healthcare in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, access to healthcare

Service, including those related to family planning.

2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1 of the article, States Parties shall ensure to women appropriate services in connection with pregnancy, confinement and the post-natal period granting free services where necessary, as well as adequate nutrition during pregnancy and lactation.

ARTICLE 13

WOMEN IN ECONOMIC, SOCIAL AND CULTURAL LIFE

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in other areas of economic and social life in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women, the same rights, in particular;

a. The right to family benefits;

b. The right to bank loans, mortgages and other forms of financial credit;

c. The right to participate in recreational activities, sports and all aspects of cultural life.

ARTICLE 14

RURAL WOMEN

1. States Parties shall take into account the particular problems faced by rural women and the significant roles which rural women play in the economic survival of their families, including working in the non-monetized sectors of the economy, and shall take all appropriate measures to ensure the application of the provisions of this Convention to women in rural areas.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in rural areas in order to ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women that they participate in and benefit from rural development and, in particular, shall ensure to such women the right:

a. to participate in the elaboration and implementation of development planning at all levels;

b. to have access to adequate health care facilities, including information, counseling and services in family planning;

c. to benefit directly from social security programmes;

d. to obtain all types of training and education, formal and nonformula, including that relating to functional literacy as well as inter alias the benefit of all community and extension services, in order to

Increase their technical proficiency;

e. to organize self-help groups and co-operatives in order to obtain equal access to economic opportunities through employment or self-employment;

f. to participate in all community activities;

g. to have access to agriculture credit and loans, marketing facilities, appropriate technology and equal treatment in land and agrarian reforms as well as in land resettlement schemes;

h. to enjoy adequate living conditions, particularly in relation to housing, sanitation, electricity and water supply, transport and communications.

ARTICLE 15:

EQUALITY BEFORE THE LAW

1. States Parties shall accord to women equality with men before the law.

2. States Parties shall accord to women, in civil matters, a legal capacity identical to that of men and the same opportunities to exercise that capacity. In particular, they shall give women equal rights to conclude contracts and to administer property and shall treat them equally in all stages of procedure in courts and tribunals.

3. States Parties agree that all contracts and all other private instruments of any kind with a legal effect which is directed at restricting the legal capacity of women shall be deemed null and void.

4. States Parties shall accord to men and women the same rights with regard to the law relating to the movement of persons and the freedom to choose their residence and domicile.

ARTICLE 16

MARRIAGE AND FAMILY RELATIONS

1. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to eliminate discrimination against women in all matters relating to marriage and family relations and in particular shall ensure, on a basis of equality of men and women:

a. The same right to enter into marriage;

b. The same right freely to choose a spouse and to enter into marriage only with their free and full consent;

c. The same rights and responsibilities during marriage and its dissolution;

d. The same rights and responsibilities as parents, irrespective of their marital tutus, in matters relating to their children; in all cases the interests of the hildren shall be paramount;

e. The same rights to decide freely and responsibly on the number and spacing of their children and to have access to the information, education and means to enable them to exercise these rights;

f. The same rights and responsibilities with regard to guardianship, warship, trusteeship and adoption of children, or similar institutions where these concepts exist in national legislation; in all cases the interests of the children shall be paramount;

g. The same personal rights as husband and wife, including the right to choose a family name, a profession and an occupation;

h. The same rights for both spouses in respect of ownership, acquisition, management, administration, enjoyment and disposition of property, whether free of charge or for a valuable consideration.

2. The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage and to make the registration of marriages in an official registry compulsory.

INTERNATIONAL IMPORTANCE OF CEDAW

Why is CEDAW important?

CEDAW is important to the lives of women in theUnited Statesbecause it sends a powerful signal that our government truly believes that women should be treated fairly and equally under theU.S.law. Current laws, while reflecting a commitment to the rights of all individuals, do not create rights for women that are specific to women’s needs in daily life. Through CEDAW ratification, theUnited Stateswould commit to ensuring that equality becomes a reality for all women and girls in such areas as civil and political rights; property rights; employment and compensation; education; health care and safety; and insurance, retirement, and other benefit plans. Not only will CEDAW impact the lives of women in theUnited Statesbut abroad as well.U.S.ratification would be a critically important statement of support for women elsewhere whose governments place little or no importance on adherence to the treaty’s provision as long as the world’s most powerful country does not, and it would increase immeasurably theUnited States’ own credibility in condemning human rights violations at home and abroad.

CURRENT STATUS AND THE IMPORTANCE OF U.S. RATIFICATION

CURRENT STATUS

In June 1997 the Clinton Administration informed the Senate Foreign Relations Committee of its priorities for ratification of international treaties in the 105th Congress.

TheUnited Stateswas active in drafting the Convention and signed it onJuly 17, 1980. It was transmitted to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in November 1980. In the summer of 1990, the Committee held hearings on the Convention. In the spring of 1993, sixty-eight senators signed a letter to President Clinton, asking him to take the necessary steps to ratify the Women’s Convention. In June 1993, Secretary of State Warren Christopher announced at the World Conference on Human Rights inViennathat the Administration would move on the Women’s Convention and other human rights treaties.

In September 1994, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee reported out favorably on the Convention, by a vote of 13 to 5 (with one abstention). Unfortunately, this occurred in the last days of the Congressional session, when several senators put a hold on the Convention, thereby blocking it from the Senate floor during the 103rd Congress. When the new Senate convened in January 1995, the Convention reverted to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. The committee has taken no action since then.

Sixty-seven “yes” votes are required for the Senate to consent to ratification. Action by the House of Representatives is not required for ratification of international treaties. To date ten states have endorsedU.S.ratification in their state legislatures:California,Hawaii,Iowa,Maine,Massachusetts,New Hampshire,New York,North Carolina,South Dakota, andVermont. The Connecticut State Senate and the Illinois House of Representatives have also endorsedU.S.ratification.

IMPORTANCE OF U.S. RATIFICATION

The Convention provides a universal definition of discrimination against women that provides a basis for every government’s domestic and foreign policy to combat discrimination.

As one of the few nations that has failed to ratify the Women’s Convention, theUnited Statescompromises its credibility as a leader for human rights. TheUnited Statesmade ratification of the Women’s Convention by the year 2000 one of its public commitments at the UN Conference on Women inBeijingin September 1995. TheUnited Statesmust keep that commitment.

The Women’s Convention is a tool that women around the world are using in their struggle against the effects of discrimination: violence against women, poverty, lack of legal status, no right to inherit or own property, access to credit, etc. Women need theUnited Statesto speak loudly and clearly in support of the Women’s Convention so that the Convention becomes a stronger instrument in support of their struggles. WithoutUSratification, other governments can more easily ignore the Convention’s mandate and their obligations under it.

Violence against women seriously inhibits women’s ability to enjoy rights and freedoms on a basis of equality with men. But violence against women itself emerges from the phenomenon of discrimination against women which makes them a target of violence. To effectively combat the crime of violence against women,USpolicy must address this linkage of discrimination and violence. By ratifying the Women’s Convention, theUnited Stateswill reinforce its commitment to eliminate discrimination and, therefore, move closer to effectively combating violence against women.

The Clinton Administration has developed a number of provisions that will be incorporated intoUSratification of the Convention to ensure that there will be no inappropriate intrusion on states’ rights or into the private domain.

Ratification of the Women’s Convention will entitle theUnited Statesto nominate aU.S.expert to be a member of the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, which monitors reports of progress in the treatment of women from the countries that have ratified the Convention. In this capacity, theUSexpert could bring the benefit ofUSexperience in combating discrimination against women to this international forum.

GOVT URGED TO SIGN CEDAW PROTOCOL

KARACHI, Feb 28: Speakers at a seminar on Friday demanded of the government to edictally repeal all discriminatory laws and declare parallel systems like jigs, pinheads, etc., illegal.

They were speaking on the concluding day of a two-day seminar on the United Nations’ convention on Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), organized by the Aurat Foundation.

“The government should bring all laws in conformity with the CEDAW, which it has signed, asPakistanis bound to make all laws in accordance with the international convention,” they observed.

Justice (retired) Sheik Usmani urged the civil society organizations to lobby with the women parliamentarians so that they could take a unified stand, regardless of their party affiliations, in the parliament whenever an issue relating to women was taken up.

He said that under the new laws domestic violence could now be tried by the family courts as the judges have been given the powers of the first-class magistrate, who can fine and imprison a violator.

He said that the family courts could direct a husband not to sell his property till the case was decided, while earlier when a court decided against a man and directed him to pay some amount to his wife, he used to sell all his property before implementation of the law and the woman could not get the share.

Justice Usmani was of the view that under the new laws the procedure to get Chula” (a woman’s right to divorce) had been made easy and women have been provided relief and now they can get Chula easily.

He said that many cultural and social traditions were being practiced under the garb of religion, but it would need a long time and struggle to change these centuries-old traditions.

Other speakers urged the government to sign the Optional Protocol of the CEDAW and said that after signing the protocol the government would become accountable to the committee, which could ask it against any violation of the CEDAW.

At present the government has reservations on at least two points in the CEDAW: one is its provisions should be in accordance with the constitution while the other is that under the cover of the convention a state could take another country to the international court by making a complaint against a violation of the CEDAW, they maintained.

The speakers said that many countries had expressed reservations on the second point as they felt that any country would take another, whom it opposed on various matters, to the court just to settle old scores.

They suggested that awareness campaign be launched at a large scale so that the masses and, in particular, the decision-makers become aware of these issues.

Shagufta Alizai, Nighat Shirin, Yunus Khalid, Shahid Fayaz and others also spoke. Representatives of civil society organizations, NGOs, political parties and parliamentarians were present.

GOVT URGED TO IMPLEMENT LAWS PERTAINING TO WOMEN   RIGHTS

KARACHI: The Legislative Watch Committee of Aurat Foundation,Karachi, organized a two-day capacity building workshop on ‘CEDAW: Concepts and Realities on Thursday at a local hotel. The speakers of the workshop were of the opinion that at a time when March 8 (International Women’s Day) was approaching, there was a dire need to make people aware as to what were the definitions of equality. They said that people chanted slogans for women rights and equality and the government also made promises but they, later, became a part of history.

They were of the view that it should be seen whether the government implemented the existing law pertaining to women legal, economic and social rights and followed the UN Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) of whichPakistanis a signatory.

Stating the objectives of the workshop Nuzhat Shirin, Chief Coordinator of the workshop said that it was aimed at creating awareness about CEDAW and its implementation in relation to the laws and policies related to women inPakistan.

Shad Fiaz, Senior Program Officer of Aurat Foundation, highlighted three basic principles of CEDAW; raising equality, non-discrimination and state obligation.

Yunus Khalid, the Resident Director of Aurat Foundation,Quetta, briefed the participants about the CEDAW, which reaffirms faith in fundamental human rights and dignity of human beings. Khalid said that despite being a signatory of CEDAW we did not follow the ethics and articles laid down by the said convention. He said that the UN demanded ofPakistanto give a progress report after one year of signing the treaty in 1996 and the govt said that it had recently submitted the same. The report was supposed to be made in consent with the civil society, NGOs and other parties concerned, but neither they knew about it nor were they given a copy of the submitted report. Shagufta Alizai, a woman activist, consultant associated with various branches of the UN, concluded the session.

The sitting Government CEDAW in preparation for Pakistan’s participation in the UN World Conference for Women at Beijing later that year. Pakistan official and non-governmental participation is largest in its history of participating in UN Conferences for Women. Punjab Government passes an Ordinance reserving one-third of all local council seats for Woman.

1996 A process of Beijing Follow-Up is launched by donors and government, which Includes  the formation of National and Provincial Core Groups to monitor the government’s implementation of the Platform for Action.

1997 Parliament passes a law making death penalty mandatory for the offence of Gang rape. This is in addition to the existing Hadood laws.The National Inquiry Commission on the Status of Women submits its report. Its recommendations include repeal of discriminatory laws, drastic increase of women’s political participation through affirmative action and the established of a Permanent Commission on the Status of Women. The Privatization Commission invites bids for the private purchase of the first Women Bank. WAF files a petition against the move and the Lahore High Court issues an order ensuring that the FWB mandate is upheld by any Buyer.

2000 Declaration of Devolution plan in Pakistan. Women were given 33% Participation

Share in the Local Government Elections. The Asian Development Bank gave an aid of 130 million dollars in respect of implementation of Women quota in the Judiciary.

Future Initiatives

• Lobbying with Line Departments and NGOs for implementation of NPA.

• Focus on awareness raising, advocacy in districts as an on-going activity of         PA/CEDAW 

Unit,Punjabtill March 2001.

• Strengthening the capacity of PCG, DCG and Task Force inPunjab.

• Proposal for two centers for disabled women inLahoreandRawalpindiforwarded to the Government.

PAKISTAN CODE FOR THE WORKPLACE

Studies conducted by rights groups in Pakistanconfirm the widespread occurrence of sexual harassment of women at the workplace. But the government is dragging its feet on introducing a legal framework to check the practice and ensure a safe working environment for half of the country’s population.

Rights-based groups say the absence of laws that define sexual harassment as a punishable crime is resulting in an increase of such occurrences, causing tremendous mental and psychological agony to women employees in the formal and informal sectors.

“The right to live and work with dignity is an inalienable right of all people. Women, however, are denied this right, be it in agricultural fields or in corporate offices. Behavior that qualifies as sexual harassment restricts their active and effective participation in society according to their fullest potential,” says Hadia Nusrat, an activist based inIslamabad.

A groundbreaking investigation on the issue was recently concluded by the Alliance Against Sexual Harassment at the Workplace (AASHA), a group of nine civil society organizations in the country. Its report, “Situation Analysis – Sexual Harassment at the Workplace”, says such harassment cuts across all boundaries – age, class and position. “Most working women in Pakistanat one time or another face this kind of violation of their rights from their colleagues, bosses or employers.”

The report is based on interviews with nurses in private and public sector hospitals, domestic workers, women workers in agricultural fields and brick kilns, women employees at multinational companies, public and private sector organizations and retail outlets. Of 17 nurses (between 16 and 21 years) interviewed 58 per cent faced sexual harassment by co-workers, patients or their relatives, and doctors. Only 11 per cent denied its existence while 29 per cent refused to talk.

Ninety-one per cent of the interviewed domestic workers (14 to 30 years) said they faced harassment from their employers. Similarly, 93 per cent of women employees in private and public sector organizations said they faced sexual harassment at the workplace. Most victims were dated by co-workers and employers, threatened when they refused to comply with sexual propositions by their bosses, and faced sexually suggestive comments, says the report.

At brick kilns and in agricultural fields the situation is particularly disturbing – the incidence of sexual harassment here is as high as 95 per cent. Interviewees said they faced harassment, or were raped and tortured by their employers.

The AASHA study, based on a small but diverse sample, is a manifestation of the magnitude of the issue affecting most women who are part of the active workforce. “Sexual harassment at workplaces is widespread and requires immediate government attention,” says Nasrin Azhar, a long-time rights
activist, currently working with Action Aid Pakistan which is a part of AASHA.

Apart from the fact that sexual harassment is gender-specific discrimination, says Azhar, it is an exercise of male power based on economic position and authority at the workplace. “Fear of losing
a job or their career being stifled, prevents victims from reporting incidents of sexual harassment.”

However, even those who muster enough courage to go public with their trauma find no justice; the country simply does not have the mechanism to deal with such cases. Besides, public, private and many not-for-profit organizations are also not prepared to address cases of sexual harassment if these are brought to their notice.

In 2002, Uzma Khan quit the NGO she worked for, when she saw that her employers were insensitive to the sexual harassment case she brought forward. Having been already humiliated by the government official (the accused) Khan felt further humiliated by the attitude of her colleagues, who asked her to hush up the matter because it involved a responsible government official on good terms with the NGO.

Instead of discussing the causes of malnutrition and child mortality – the purpose for which Khan met the government official, he was more interested in knowing how it feels when a mother breastfeeds her baby. “He was constantly asking about the pleasure a mother gets from the ‘let down reflex’. I knew exactly where his line of questioning was leading…I just walked out in disgust,” said Khan.

This is a typical case of sexual harassment that involved an aggressor whose behavior was ignored because of his position of power. In several such cases, victims are blamed for telling on male co-workers and employers if they report an occurrence. Says a spokesperson for AASHA, “The legal
procedures reinforce a woman’s experience of humiliation, embarrassment and public exposure, thus isolating her further.”

Meanwhile, the government is procrastinating – it is simply not moving on implementing the agenda of CEDAW (Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women) to whichPakistanis a signatory. The Ministry of Women’s Development admits the need for a legal mechanism to check sexual harassment at the workplace. And it says it is aware of its responsibility to take measures under Article 19 of CEDAW to protect women from sexual harassment and Article 2 of the UN Declaration on Violence against Women that specifically mentions sexual harassment and intimidation at workplace.

On request of anonymity, an official of the ministry says, “It is a crucial problem that needs to be tackled. The ministry is currently working on a draft policy framework to deal with the issue, which is to be presented as soon as it is ready. But we cannot just introduce some law on our own, it has to clear the cumbersome bureaucratic procedures and attitudes of the male-dominated bureaucracy.” But this is what the government has been saying for years.

This non-committal official response has prompted AASHA to prepare its own code to deal with the issue – the Code of Conduct for Gender Justice at the Workplace. It wants the government to adopt the Code and give it legal protection as it envisages the issue in its entirety – from reporting to investigation/enquiry, and punishment.

AASHA has prepared its Code following an exhaustive process of countrywide consultations with public and private sector organizations and also civil society groups. It has been prepared in line with the provisions of ILO Convention 100 (Equal Remuneration for Equal Value of Work), Convention 111
(Discrimination in Employment and Occupation) and with the relevant clauses of CEDAW.Pakistan is a signatory to all these international conventions.

But the military government – which discussed the adoption of the Code at a cabinet meeting last September – deferred a decision when various ministers raised objections on the wide scope of the definition of sexual harassment. “It would have also enabled women workers to lodge complaints against their male companions without having to disclose their identity, hence creating an atmosphere of distrust at the workplace. The cabinet asked the ministry to come up with more realistic and applicable ways to deal with the issue,” confided an official of the Women’s Development Ministry.

AASHA however, is undeterred. A spokesperson says, “We are lobbying with the private sector and civil society organizations to voluntarily adopt the Code. Our efforts have so far enabled 10 organizations to implement the Code, proving that it is workable and enforceable, unlike what the government says.”

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Physical, Social and Financial Problems of Females using Various Methods of Contraception

Introduction

Birth control is considered very important for economic development of a nation. Being able to control reproductive functioning is a very necessary component of career preparation and family growth management.

Women have attempted to control their fertility status throughout the history but these methods or techniques were not medicated. Egyptian history indicates that females made a concoction of different acids or compounds that were inserted into the vigina in paste form. It is called early form of diaphragm. Greeks also followed these methods but their medication was different than Egyptian females. Females used different types of teas, juices, septic solutions, to avoid the unwanted pregnancies. Stones were also placed in uterus to protect from pregnancies. This method is an example of modern Intra Uterine Devices (IUD). Early attempts at spermicides agents included different mixtures of acid, juices, honey, alcohol and vinegar. These methods are also used now days but now these methods are in modern form. There are different methods available to control unwanted pregnancies. (Alexander, n.d.).

Pakistan is one of those countries, which are suffering from high population growth rate problems. Pakistan’s population growth rate is 1.98 %( est) (CIA, World Bank fact book, 2004), which is considered dangerous not only for economic growth but also harmful for women’s reproductive health. According to the United Nations projection, Pakistan’s population growth will be over 380 millions by the year 2050. (Rosen, 1996)

To control the population growth rate, family planning program was found in 1953 in Pakistan as a part of International Family Planning Movement. In 1960, General Ayub Khan, the head of Pakistan’s Military Government, took keen interest in family planning and the clinics started providing rarely family planning services. In 1965, Government of Pakistan established a National Family Planning Program with separate clinics infrastructure. Contraceptive use was just 6% in 1969. A continuous motivation system was introduced nation wide in this regard in 1973. But Government was unable to recruit sufficient number of qualified motivators. Another strategy was launched with assistance from USAID, a big donor agency, in 1974.

Its objective was to distribute contraceptives through shopkeepers, clinics and fields workers. A survey was conducted to check the rate of usage of contraceptive methods. But its use was virtually unchanged from 1969 levels. These programs were shut down in 1977 when the military Government of Zia ul Haq took power. However in 1980, Zia’s Government restarted the population program and this program was transferred from Ministry of Health to Ministry of Planning and Development. In 1985, contraceptive use raised slightly to 9%. Now the Government has set up the Non Governmental Organizations Coordinating Councils (NGOCC) to help and mobilize the private voluntarily sector in population’s activities.

The social marketing of contraceptives, which started in 1986, gained momentum in the 1990s. Despite some setbacks, social marketing has probably improved accessibility of contraceptives in urban areas. (Sathar, Zeba, 1998).  It was only 12% contraceptive use in1991. Prime Minister Banazir Bhutto launched Community Health Workers Program in 1993. An International Conference on Population and Development was held in Cairo, in 1995. Banazir Bhutto attended this conference and spoke of her dream of Pakistan “where every pregnancy is planned, and every child is nurtured, loved, educated and supported”. The contraceptive prevalence rose to 18% in 1995. (Rosen, 1996).

In social marketing, radio and television played an important role and started campaigns promoting family planning. Both radio and television have picked up momentum, in term of their frequency and the explicitness of the message. The percentage of women who reported that they had heard or seen a family planning massages more than doubled between the 1990-91 and the1994-95, exceeding 60 percent in the latter surveys. The radio and television messages legitimize family planning practice and offered concrete information about how contraceptive can be obtained. An analysis comparing the impact of information, education, and communication programs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan has shown substantial improvements in the reach of family planning messages in the Pakistan media and in their association with contraceptive adoption (Zeba, 1998). Contraceptive prevalence rate in Pakistan was 27.6% in 2002. (Pearls, 2002)

There are different mechanisms for contraception available in Pakistan including condoms, oral pills, spermicidal, diaphragms, sponged etc. Generally females experience side effects when they use contraception methods. These side effects are bleeding problems which include heavy prolonged and irregular periods; spotting or constant bleeding or short cycles, abdominal pain, colic, burning, nausea, diarrhea, loss or increased appetite, dizziness, headache, flushed, nervousness, depression, insomnia and blurred vision.

Pakistan Government has involved many NGOs in promoting family planning awareness and in providing family planning services and has developed many mechanisms. But no one method is perfect that can protect women’s health and is effective for prevention of unwanted pregnancies.

In addition to side effects, there are also social hurdles in using contraceptive method. There are at least six components which contribute to the cost of contraception for users: the monetary cost of purchasing contraceptives; the search cost of acquiring information about methods and where to purchase them; the time and travel costs of obtaining them; the costs associated with side effects of use; the variety-constraint cost of not getting one’s preferred method; and the psychic costs of using contraceptives despite perceived social disapproval.

John B. Casterline (1996) conducted a study in Pakistan about obstacles to contraceptive use and concluded that husband’s opposition, fear of side effects, no access to contraceptive services, religious unacceptability of contraceptive use is the main obstacles to contraceptive use in Pakistan.

There are different kinds of barriers to family planning services uses. The greatest obstacles are psychosocial barrier, which includes opposition of religion. There is a debate about whether family planning Islamic or not. Husband’s opposition against contraception, low level of education of females in Pakistan, low level of decision making power of females and prevalence of purdah system contribute in this regard. Women who can go to neighbors easily r out side the home have great personal freedom to utilize family planning services particularly those who required permission from their husbands. The perception of people that family planning services are of poor quality and fear of using services due to reports of bad experience of others is another barrier. Although there are many facilities for females to choose and use contraceptive but the cost of transport and absence from household economic activities become a significant barrier for poor households. Most Pakistani females have no access to media, although social marketing of contraceptives have increased rapidly in Pakistan in 1990’s and as a result women have better access to media and they are more aware about contraception. (Casterline, 1996: Rosen, 1996: Stephenson, 2004)

1.1. Statement of the problem

This study aims to know about the physical, social and financial problems of females using various methods of contraception like condoms, oral pills, spermicidal, diaphragms, sponges etc.

This study explored in detail that why women use contraceptive methods in limited numbers. It also highlighted the subsequent available contraceptives and indicated n how women use these methods and their effects on health their females.

1.2. Objectives of the study

The study aims to:

  • find out the perceptions of females about contraceptive methods.
  • identify the contraceptive methods mostly used by females.
  • find out the financial problems faced by females using contraceptive methods.
  • identify the social problems faced by females using contraceptive methods.
  • find out the physical changes and problems faced by females using contraceptive methods .
  • find out the extent of choice of females in contraceptive methods usage.
  • solicit suggestions from females to improve the services of family planning.

1.3. Significance of the study 

The research will deal with the opinions, hurdles, preferences and perceptions related to contraceptive adoption by females. This may help the Government for policy making, social health associations and people to find out easy ways to use contraceptives and to make its services practical for them to obtain and use contraceptives continuously.

This study proposes the ultimate goal of expanding access to reproductive health services through an increased choice in the appropriate methods of fertility regulation. A research strategy may be proposed to understand how; especially women appraise different contraceptive methods and their attributes. More specifically how users and potential users assess their particular needs and weigh the different characteristics of available methods to choose and subsequently continue to use a method. Such an understanding may shed light on the future demand for specific methods or any method, on the need for information and programmatic intervention and on the development or modifications of contraceptive methods. The study will also highlight the social barriers, which influence the usage of contraception.

1.4.Operational definitions of variables

1.4.1. Contraception

Contraception is a specified term for any procedure used to prevent fertilization of an ovum. There are different methods of contraception that are used in this regard. This study will include all methods, which have been used by the respondents.

1.4.2. Social problems

Social problems mean that:

  • Is there any restriction for females to use contraceptive methods from their family or relatives?
  • Are the behaviors of people hurdle for females to use contraceptive methods?

1.4.3. Financial problems

Financial problems are that the contraceptive methods are expensive and females cannot afford these methods in their limited financial resources.

1.4.4. Physical changes

Physical changes mean that females feel some changes in their body because of contraceptive usage. These changes are not comfortable for the body of a female.

1.5. Methodology

This research was a quantitative in nature and was a survey research.

1.5.1. Population

The population of the study was married contraceptive female users coming to the government hospitals for advice or treatment about contraceptive methods, living in Lahore city.

1.5.2. Sample of the study

Sample of the study was 100 married contraceptive female users visiting government hospitals in Lahore for advice or treatment about contraceptive methods. Four hospitals namely; Ganga Ram hospital Lahore, General hospital Lahore, Lady Willington hospital and Mayo hospital Lahore selected conveniently. Twenty-five respondents from each hospital selected conveniently.

1.5.3. Instrument for the study

Data collected through questionnaire.  Questions were both close-ended and open-ended. The questionnaire drafted keeping in view the objectives of the study and will include questions on the physical, financial and social problems of females using contraceptive techniques. The researchers administered the questionnaire personally to ensure maximum return.

1.5.4. Piloting of the study

Five females selected for the piloting of the study to remove the ambiguities in questionnaire, instrument of the study.

1.5.5. Delimitations of the study

ü  The study was delimited only in Lahore city.

ü  The other limitation of the study was that the respondents of the study were only those females who came to the government hospital.

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DIVORCE IN ISLAM VERSUS DIVORCE IN THE JUDAEO-CHRISTIAN TRADITION

The three religions have remarkable differences in their attitudes towards divorce.

Christianity abhors divorce altogether. The New Testament unequivocally advocates the indissolubility of marriage. It is attributed to Jesus to have said, “But I tell you that anyone who divorces his wife, except for marital unfaithfulness, causes her to become adulteress, and anyone who marries the divorced woman commits adultery” (Matthew 5:32).

This uncompromising ideal is, without a doubt, unrealistic. It assumes a state of moral perfection that human societies have never achieved. When a couple realizes that their married life is beyond repair, a ban on divorce will not do them any good. Forcing ill-mated couples to remain together against their wills is neither effective nor reasonable. No wonder the whole Christian world has been obliged to sanction divorce.

Judaism, on the other hand, allows divorce even without any cause. The Old Testament gives the husband the right to divorce his wife even if he just dislikes her:

“If a man marries a woman who becomes displeasing to him because he finds something indecent about her, and he writes her a certificate of divorce, gives it to her and sends her from his house, and if after she leaves his house she becomes the wife of another man, and her second husband dislikes her and writes her a certificate of divorce, gives it to her and sends her from his house, or if he dies, then her first husband, who divorced her, is not allowed to marry her again after she has been defiled” (Deut. 24:1-4)

The above verses have caused some considerable debate among Jewish scholars because of their disagreement over the interpretation of the words “displeasing”, “indecency”, and “dislikes” mentioned in the verses.

The Talmud has recorded several specific actions by wives which obliged their husbands to divorce them:

“If she ate in the street, if she drank greedily in the street, if she suckled in the street, in every case Rabbi Meir says that she must leave her husband” (Git. 89a)

The Talmud has also made it mandatory to divorce a barren wife (who bore no children in a period of ten years):

 “Our Rabbis taught: If a man took a wife and lived with her for ten years and she bore no child, he shall divorce her” (Yeb. 64a)

Wives, on the other hand, cannot initiate divorce under Jewish law. A Jewish wife, however, could claim the right to a divorce before a Jewish court provided that a strong reason exists. Very few grounds are provided for the wife to make a claim for a divorce. These grounds include: A husband with physical defects or skin disease, a husband not fulfilling his conjugal responsibilities, etc. The Court might support the wife’s claim to a divorce but it cannot dissolve the marriage. Only the husband can dissolve the marriage by giving his wife a bill of divorce. The Court could scourge, fine, imprison, and excommunicate him to force him to deliver the necessary bill of divorce to his wife. However, if the husband is stubborn enough, he can refuse to grant his wife a divorce and keep her tied to him indefinitely.

Worse still, he can desert her without granting her a divorce and leave her unmarried and undivorced. He can marry another woman or even live with any single woman out of wedlock and have children from her (these children are considered legitimate under Jewish law). The deserted wife, on the other hand, cannot marry any other man since she is still legally married and she cannot live with any other man because she will be considered an adulteress and her children from this union will be illegitimate for ten generations. A woman in such a position is called an agunah (chained woman). In the United States today there are approximately 1000 to 1500 Jewish women who are agunot (plural for agunah), while in Israel their number might be as high as 16000. Husbands may extort thousands of dollars from their trapped wives in exchange for a Jewish divorce.

Islam occupies the middle ground between Christianity and Judaism with respect to divorce. Marriage in Islam is a sanctified bond that should not be broken except for compelling reasons. Couples are instructed to pursue all possible remedies whenever their marriages are in danger. Divorce is not to be resorted to except when there is no other way out. In a nutshell, Islam recognizes divorce, yet it discourages it by all means. Let us focus on the recognition side first. Islam does recognize the right of both partners to end their matrimonial relationship. Islam gives the husband the right for Talaq (divorce). Moreover, Islam, unlike Judaism, grants the wife the right to dissolve the marriage through what is known as Khula’. If the husband dissolves the marriage by divorcing his wife, he cannot retrieve any of the marriage gifts he has given her. The Quran explicitly prohibits the divorcing husbands from taking back their marriage gifts no matter how expensive or valuable these gifts might be:

“But if you decide to take one wife in place of another, even if you had given the latter a whole treasure for dower, take not the least bit of it back; would you take it by slander and a manifest wrong?”(Quran 4:20)

In the case of the wife choosing to end the marriage, she may return the marriage gifts to her husband. Returning the marriage gifts in this case is a fair compensation for the husband who is keen to keep his wife while she chooses to leave him. The Quran has instructed Muslim men not to take back any of the gifts they have given to their wives except in the case of the wife choosing to dissolve the marriage:

“It is not lawful for you (Men) to take back any of your gifts except when both parties fear that they would be unable to keep the limits ordained by Allah. There is no blame on either of them if she give something for her freedom. These are the limits ordained by Allah so do not transgress them”

(Quran 2:229)

Also, a woman came to the Prophet Muhammad seeking the dissolution of her marriage; she told the Prophet that she did not have any complaints against her husband’s character or manners. Her only problem was that she honestly did not like him to the extent of not being able to live with him any longer. The Prophet asked her: “Would you give him his garden (the marriage gift he had given her) back?” she said: “Yes”. The Prophet then instructed the man to take back his garden and accept the dissolution of the marriage. (Bukhari)

In some cases, A Muslim wife might be willing to keep her marriage but find herself obliged to claim for a divorce because of some compelling reasons such as: Cruelty of the husband, desertion without a reason, a husband not fulfilling his conjugal responsibilities, etc. In these cases the Muslim court dissolves the marriage.

In short, Islam has offered the Muslim woman some unequalled rights: she can end the marriage through Khula’ and she can sue for a divorce. A Muslim wife can never become chained by a recalcitrant husband. It was these rights that enticed Jewish women who lived in the early Islamic societies of the seventh century C.E. to seek to obtain bills of divorce from their Jewish husbands in Muslim courts. The Rabbis declared these bills null and void. In order to end this practice, the Rabbis gave new rights and privileges to Jewish women in an attempt to weaken the appeal of the Muslim courts. Jewish women living in Christian countries were not offered any similar privileges since the Roman law of divorce practiced there was no more attractive than the Jewish law.

Let us now focus our attention on how Islam discourages divorce. The Prophet of Islam told the believers that:

“among all the permitted acts, divorce is the most hateful to God”(Abu Dawood)

A Muslim man should not divorce his wife just because he dislikes her. The Quran instructs Muslim men to be kind to their wives even in cases of lukewarm emotions or feelings of dislike:

“Live with them (your wives) on a footing of kindness and equity. If you dislike them it may be that you dislike something in which Allah has placed a great deal of good”(Quran 4:19)

Prophet Muhammad gave a similar instruction:

“A believing man must not hate a believing woman. If he dislikes one of her traits he will be pleased with another” (Muslim)

The Prophet has also emphasized that the best Muslims are those who are best to their wives:

“The believers who show the most perfect faith are those who have the best character and the best of you are those who are best to their wives”

 (Tirmidthi)

However, Islam is a practical religion and it does recognize that there are circumstances in which a marriage becomes on the verge of collapsing. In such cases, a mere advice of kindness or self restraint is no viable solution. So, what to do in order to save a marriage in these cases? The Quran offers some practical advice for the spouse (husband or wife) whose partner (wife or husband) is the wrongdoer. For the husband whose wife’s ill-conduct is threatening the marriage, the Quran gives four types of advice as detailed in the following verses:

“As to those women on whose part you fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, (1) Admonish them, (2) refuse to share their beds, (3) beat them; but if they return to obedience seek not against them means of annoyance: For Allah is Most High, Great. (4) If you fear a break between them, appoint two arbiters, one from his family and the other from hers; If they wish for peace, Allah will cause their reconciliation” (Quran 4:34-35)

The first three are to be tried first. If they fail, then the help of the families concerned should be sought. It has to be noted, in the light of the above verses, that beating the rebellious wife is a temporary measure that is resorted to as third in line in cases of extreme necessity in hopes that it might remedy the wrongdoing of the wife. If it does, the husband is not allowed by any means to continue any annoyance to the wife as explicitly mentioned in the verse. If it does not, the husband is still not allowed to use this measure any longer and the final avenue of the family-assisted reconciliation has to be explored.

Prophet Muhammad has instructed Muslim husbands that they should not have recourse to these measures except in extreme cases such as open lewdness committed by the wife. Even in these cases the punishment should be slight and if the wife desists, the husband is not permitted to irritate her:

“In case they are guilty of open lewdness you may leave them alone in their beds and inflict slight punishment. If they are obedient to you, do not seek against them any means of annoyance” (Tirmidthi)

Furthermore, the Prophet of Islam has condemned any unjustifiable beating. Some Muslim wives complained to him that their husbands had beaten them. Hearing that, the Prophet categorically stated that:

“Those who do so (beat their wives) are not the best among you”(Abu Dawood)

It has to be remembered at this point that the Prophet has also said:

“The best of you is he who is best to his family, and I am the best among you to my family” (Tirmidthi)

The Prophet advised one Muslim woman, whose name was Fatimah bint Qais, not to marry a man because the man was known for beating women:

“I went to the Prophet and said: Abul Jahm and Mu’awiah have proposed to marry me. The Prophet (by way of advice) said: As to Mu’awiah he is very poor and Abul Jahm is accustomed to beating women”(Muslim)

It has to be noted that the Talmud sanctions wife beating as chastisement for the purpose of discipline. The husband is not restricted to the extreme cases such as those of open lewdness. He is allowed to beat his wife even if she just refuses to do her house work. Moreover, he is not limited only to the use of light punishment. He is permitted to break his wife’s stubbornness by the lash or by starving her.

For the wife whose husband’s ill-conduct is the cause for the marriage’s near collapse, the Quran offers the following advice:

“If a wife fears cruelty or desertion on her husband’s part, there is no blame on them if they arrange an amicable settlement between themselves; and such settlement is best”(Quran 4:128)

In this case, the wife is advised to seek reconciliation with her husband (with or without family assistance). It is notable that the Quran is not advising the wife to resort to the two measures of abstention from sex and beating. The reason for this disparity might be to protect the wife from a violent physical reaction by her already misbehaving husband. Such a violent physical reaction will do both the wife and the marriage more harm than good. Some Muslim scholars have suggested that the court can apply these measures against the husband on the wife’s behalf. That is, the court first admonishes the rebellious husband, then forbids him his wife’s bed, and finally executes a symbolic beating.

To sum up, Islam offers Muslim married couples much viable advice to save their marriages in cases of trouble and tension. If one of the partners is jeopardizing the matrimonial relationship, the other partner is advised by the Quran to do whatever possible and effective in order to save this sacred bond. If all the measures fail, Islam allows the partners to separate peacefully and amicably.

Gender X

GENDER

“Gender refers to the social differences and relations between men and women which are learned, vary widely among societies and cultures, and change over time.”

“The term “gender” refers to the socially constructed roles and responsibilities assigned to men and women in a given culture or location.”

“Gender refers to the socio – cultural definitions of man and woman, the way societies distinguish men and women, and assign them social roles.”

EQUALITY

Equality is, According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, “the state of being equal, especially in status, rights etc.

EQUITY

Equity is, According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, “the value of the shares issued by company.”

GENDER EQUALITY

Gender Equality, equality between men and women, entails the concept that all human beings, both men and women, are free to develop their personal abilities and make choices without the limitations set by stereotypes, rigid gender roles and prejudices. Gender equality means that the different behavior, aspirations, and needs of men and women are considered, valued and favored equally.

GENDER EQUITY

Gender Equity means fairness of treatment for men and women, according to their respective needs. This may need men and women, according to their respective needs. This may include equal treatment or treatment that is different but which is considered equivalent in terms of rights, benefits, obligations and opportunities.

ABC Of Women Workers’ Rights And Gender Equality, ILO, 2000, p.48.  

GENDER MAINSTREAMING

Gender mainstreaming, known also as mainstreaming a gender perspective, is “the process of assessing the implications for men and women of any planned action including any legislation, policies, and programmes in any area and at all levels.”

CONCEPT OF GENDER QUALITY

There are two concepts of gender equality. First one is Islamic and the second one is western and there is a hell of difference between both of them. Nowadays our society is greatly under the influence of western culture. As a result, the traditional role of Muslim women has in particular undergone a noticeable change. The changes in the male – female relationship and freedom of women in economic and sexual matters have posed a great threat to the traditional pattern of Muslim culture which, in fact, is the most crucial problem of the 20th century Muslim world. There are several verses in Quran which clearly shows that the Islamic social system does not grant women equality in the western sense.

Historically, in West, Mary Wallstone, wife of aBritaincommunist philosopher, presented the concept of gender equality first time in her book, “Vindication of the Rights of Women”, published in 1972. But Islam has given the concept of gender equality 1400 years ago.

There are number of evils exists in West just because of their concept of gender equality. It is really very perplexing that on the one hand, man of West experiments in the core of sea, harnesses the space and plays with galaxies but, on the other hand, the staus of his women is very shameful.

GENDER AND ISLAM

According to the Qur’an, God created woman and man simultaneously, of like substance, and in like manner. Several verses state that

God created man and women from a single life-cell or being. Both man and women have male and female components and both together form the human species.

It is a clear teaching of the Qur’an that man and woman are equal in the sight of God, and the Qur’an uses both feminine and masculine terms and imagery to describe the creation of humanity from a single source.

Finally, woman was not created to serve the ends of man, nor vice versa: both were created to serve God’s purpose. Both are called upon equally to be righteous, and women and men are “members” and “protectors” of each other.

Woman is recognized by Islam as a full and equal partner of man in the procreation of humankind. He is the father; she is the mother, and both are essential for life. Her role is not less vital than his. By this partnership she has an equal share in every aspect; she is entitled to equal rights; she undertakes equal responsibilities, and in her there are as many qualities and as much humanity as there are in her partner. To this equal partnership in the reproduction of human kind God says:

“O mankind! Verily We have created your from a single (pair) of a male and a female and made you into nations and tribes that you may know each other...” (Qur'an, 49:13; cf. 4:1).

She is equal to man in bearing personal and common responsibilities and in receiving rewards for her deeds. She is acknowledged as an independent personality, in possession of human qualities and worthy of spiritual aspirations, her human nature is neither inferior to nor deviant from that of man. Both are members of one another.

In order to understand what Islam has established for woman, there is no need to deplore her plight in the pre-Islamic era or in the modern would of today. Islam has given woman rights and privileges which she has never enjoyed under other religious or constitutional systems. This can be understood when the matter is studied as a whole in a comparative manner, rather than partially. The rights and responsibilities of a woman are equal to those of a man but they are not necessarily identical with them. Equality and sameness are two quite different things. This difference is understandable because man and woman are not identical but they are created equals. With this distinction in mind, there is no problem. It is almost impossible to find even two identical men or women.

This distinction between equality and sameness is of paramount importance. Equality is desirable, just, fair; but sameness is not. People are not created identical but they are created equals. With this distinction in mind, there is no room to imagine that woman is inferior to man. There is no ground to assume that she is less important than he just because her rights are not identically the same as his. Had her status been identical with his, she would have been simply a duplicate of him, which she is not. The fact that Islam gives her equal rights – but not identical – shows that it takes her into due consideration, acknowledges her, and recognizes her independent personality.

The status of woman in Islam is something unique, something novel, and something that has no similarity in any other system. 

MY PERCEPTION 

We are all of this view that education is the ultimate solution to overcome gender inequality. I think this is not only formal education which can pave the way for equality.

The known world literature is a by-product of patriarchal socio-economic set-ups that attempt to consolidate man’s superiority position his supremacy. During education, when a male student study poetry and fiction and writer gives him upper edge. Will it not be the situation that his superiority complex grows further? In fiction take the example of Ismat Chughtai and Sa’adat Hasan Manto. They brought into vogue many notorious Freudian concepts that the Muslim society was not accustomed to. Both of them paved the way for new liberal thought in literature. Subsequently, other writers also took up sexual subjects in their work quite boldly.

The role of media in this context is not contented, because in media, they are just exploiting issues of women instead of giving solutions to these problems. They have just made women as a glamorous entity. They have forgotten that she is not just a pretty face; she is lot more than that. Nowadays media can play a vital role in creating awareness among common masses of the society.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

  1. Kamla Bhasin, 2000, Understanding Gender. Dehli, Pauls Press.
  2. Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary
  3. A summary review of UNESCO’s accomplishments since the 4th world conference on women (Beijing 1995)
  4. Handouts provided by Madam Ra’ana Malik

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    1. Pagination: The abstract begins on a new page (page 2).
    2. Heading: Abstract (centered on the first line below the manuscript page header)
    3. Format: The abstract (in block format) begins on the line following the Abstract heading. The abstract should not exceed 120 words. All numbers in the abstract (except those beginning a sentence) should be typed as digits rather than words.
    4. Example of APA-formatted Abstract:   http://www.vanguard.edu/psychology/abstract.pdf
  4. Body
    1. Pagination: The body of the paper begins on a new page (page 3). Subsections of the body of the paper do not begin on new pages.
    2. Title: The title of the paper (in uppercase and lowercase letters) is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header.
    3. Introduction: The introduction (which is not labeled) begins on the line following the paper title.
    4. Headings: Headings are used to organize the document and reflect the relative importance of sections. For example, many empirical research articles utilize Method, Results, Discussion, and References headings. In turn, the Method section often has subheadings of Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure. For an example of APA-formatted headings, go to  http://www.vanguard.edu/psychology/headings.pdf
      1. Main headings (when the paper has either one or two levels of headings) use centered uppercase and lowercase letters (e.g., Method, Results, Discussion, and References).
      2. Subheadings (when the paper has two levels of headings) are italicized and use flush left, uppercase and lowercase letters (e.g., Participants, Apparatus, and Procedure as subsections of the Method section).
  5. Text citations: Source material must be documented in the body of the paper by citing the author(s) and date(s) of the sources. The underlying principle is that ideas and words of others must be formally acknowledged. The reader can obtain the full source citation from the list of references that follows the body of the paper.
    1. When the names of the authors of a source are part of the formal structure of the sentence, the year of publication appears in parentheses following the identification of the authors. Consider the following example:

      Wirth and Mitchell (1994) found that although there was a reduction in insulin dosage over a period of two weeks in the treatment condition compared to the control condition, the difference was not statistically significant.     [Note: and is used when multiple authors are identified as part of the formal structure of the sentence. Compare this to the example in the following section.]

    2. When the authors of a source are not part of the formal structure of the sentence, both the authors and years of publication appear in parentheses, separated by semicolons. Consider the following example:

      Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Gartner, Larson, & Allen, 1991; Koenig, 1990; Levin & Vanderpool, 1991; Maton & Pargament, 1987; Paloma & Pendleton, 1991; Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991).      [Note: & is used when multiple authors are identified in parenthetical material. Note also that when several sources are cited parenthetically, they are ordered alphabetically by first authors’ surnames.]

    3. When a source that has two authors is cited, both authors are included every time the source is cited.
    4. When a source that has three, four, or five authors is cited, all authors are included the first time the source is cited. When that source is cited again, the first author’s surname and “et al.” are used. Consider the following example:

      Reviews of research on religion and health have concluded that at least some types of religious behaviors are related to higher levels of physical and mental health (Payne, Bergin, Bielema, & Jenkins, 1991).

      Payne et al. (1991) showed that …

    5. When a source that has six or more authors is cited, the first author’s surname and “et al.” are used every time the source is cited (including the first time).
    6. Every effort should be made to cite only sources that you have actually read. When it is necessary to cite a source that you have not read (“Grayson” in the following example) that is cited in a source that you have read (“Murzynski & Degelman” in the following example), use the following format for the text citation and list only the source you have read in the References list:

      Grayson (as cited in Murzynski & Degelman, 1996) identified four components of body language that were related to judgments of vulnerability.

    7. To cite a personal communication (including letters, emails, and telephone interviews), include initials, surname, and as exact a date as possible. Because a personal communication is not “recoverable” information, it is not included in the References section. For the text citation, use the following format:

      B. F. Skinner (personal communication, February 12, 1978) claimed …

    8. To cite a Web document, use the author-date format. If no author is identified, use the first few words of the title in place of the author. If no date is provided, use “n.d.” in place of the date. Consider the following examples:

      Degelman and Harris (2000) provide guidelines for the use of APA writing style.

      Changes in Americans’ views of gender status differences have been documented (Gender and Society, n.d.).

  6. Quotations: When a direct quotation is used, always include the author, year, and page number as part of the citation.
    1. A quotation of fewer than 40 words should be enclosed in double quotation marks and should be incorporated into the formal structure of the sentence. Example:

      Patients receiving prayer had “less congestive heart failure, required less diuretic and antibiotic therapy, had fewer episodes of pneumonia, had fewer cardiac arrests, and were less frequently intubated and ventilated” (Byrd, 1988, p. 829).

    2. A lengthier quotation of 40 or more words should appear (without quotation marks) apart from the surrounding text, in block format, with each line indented five spaces from the left margin.
  7. References: All sources included in the References section must be cited in the body of the paper (and all sources cited in the paper must be included in the References section).
    1. Pagination: The References section begins on a new page.
    2. Heading: References (centered on the first line below the manuscript page header)
    3. Format: The references (with hanging indent) begin on the line following the References heading. Entries are organized alphabetically by surnames of first authors. Most reference entries have three components:
      1. Authors: Authors are listed in the same order as specified in the source, using surnames and initials. Commas separate all authors. When there are seven or more authors, list the first six and then use “et al.” for remaining authors. If no author is identified, the title of the document begins the reference.
      2. Year of Publication: In parentheses following authors, with a period following the closing parenthesis. If no publication date is identified, use “n.d.”  in parentheses following the authors.
      3. Source Reference: Includes title, journal, volume, pages (for journal article) or title, city of publication, publisher (for book). Italicize titles of books, titles of periodicals, and periodical volume numbers.
    4. Example of APA-formatted References: Go to  http://www.vanguard.edu/psychology/references.pdf
    5. Official APA “Electronic Reference Formats” document: Go to  http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html
    6. Examples of sources
      1. Journal articleMurzynski, J., & Degelman, D. (1996). Body language of women and judgments of vulnerability to sexual assault. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26,  1617-1626.
      2. BookPaloutzian, R. F. (1996). Invitation to the psychology of religion  (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
      3. Web document on university program or department Web siteDegelman, D., & Harris, M. L. (2000). APA style essentials. Retrieved May 18, 2000, from Vanguard University, Department of Psychology Web site: http://www.vanguard.edu/faculty/ddegelman/index.cfm?doc_id=796
      4. Stand-alone Web document (no date)Nielsen, M. E. (n.d.). Notable people in psychology of religion. Retrieved August 3, 2001, from  http://www.psywww.com/psyrelig/psyrelpr.htm
      5. Stand-alone Web document (no author, no date)Gender and society. (n.d.). Retrieved December 3, 2001, from http://www.trinity.edu/~mkearl/gender.html
      6. Journal article from databaseHien, D., & Honeyman, T. (2000). A closer look at the drug abuse-maternal aggression link. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 15, 503-522. Retrieved May 20, 2000, from ProQuest database.
      7. Abstract from secondary databaseGarrity, K., & Degelman, D. (1990). Effect of server introduction on restaurant tipping. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 168-172. Abstract retrieved July 23, 2001, from PsycINFO database.
      8. Journal article, Internet-only journalBergen, D. (2002, Spring). The role of pretend play in children’s cognitive development. Early Childhood Research & Practice, 4(1). Retrieved February 1, 2004, from http://ecrp.uiuc.edu/v4n1/bergen.html
      9. Article or chapter in an edited bookShea, J. D. (1992). Religion and sexual adjustment. In J. F. Schumaker (Ed.), Religion and mental health (pp. 70-84). New York: Oxford University Press.
      10. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental DisordersAmerican Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington, DC: Author.
  8. Appendixes   A common use of appendixes is to present unpublished tests or to describe complex equipment or stimulus materials.    
    1. Pagination: Each Appendix begins on a separate page.
    2. Heading   If there is only one appendix, Appendix is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. If there is more than one appendix, use Appendix A (or B or C, etc.). Double-space and type the appendix title (centered in uppercase and lowercase letters).
    3. Format: Indent the first line 5-7 spaces.
    4. Example of APA-formatted Appendix:   http://www.vanguard.edu/psychology/appendix.pdf
  9. Footnotes   Content footnotes are occasionally used to support substantive information in the text..    
    1. Pagination: Footnotes begin on a separate page.
    2. Heading: Footnotes is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header.
    3. Format: Indent the first line of each footnote 5-7 spaces and number the foonotes (slightly above the line) as they are identified in the text.
    4. Example of APA-formatted Footnotes:   http://www.vanguard.edu/psychology/footnote.pdf
  10. Tables   A common use of tables is to present quantitative data or the results of statistical analyses (such as ANOVA). See the Publication Manual (2001, pp. 147-176) for detailed examples. Tables must be referred to in the text.
    1. Pagination: Each Table begins on a separate page.
    2. Heading    Table 1 (or 2 or 3, etc.) is typed flush left on the first line below the manuscript page header. Double-space and type the table title flush left (italicized in uppercase and lowercase letters).
    3. Example of APA-formatted Tables:   http://www.vanguard.edu/psychology/table2.pdf
  11. Figure Captions and Figures   A common use of Figures is to present graphs, photographs, or other illustrations (other than tables). See the Publication Manual (2001, pp. 176-201) for detailed examples. Figure Captions provide, on a single page, captions for the figures that follow.
    1. Pagination: The Figure Captions page is the final numbered page of the paper. The Figures that follow the Figure Captions page do NOT have page numbers or manuscript page headers.
    2. Heading for Figure Captions: Figure Caption(s) is centered on the first line below the manuscript page header. Double-space and type Figure 1. (or 2 or 3, etc.) italicized and flush left, followed by the caption for the figure (not italicized), capitalizing only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns.
    3. Example of APA-formatted Figure Caption and Figure:   http://www.vanguard.edu/emplibrary/files/psychfigure.pdf

Examples of APA Citation Style

Journal or Magazine Article
(use for journals that start each issue with page one)

Wilcox, R. V. (1991). Shifting roles and synthetic women in Star Trek:
The Next Generation. Studies in Popular Culture, 13(2), 53-65.
Journal or Magazine Article
(use for journals where the page numbering continues from issue to issue)

Dubeck, L. (1990). Science fiction aids science teaching. Physics
Teacher, 28, 316-318.
Newspaper Article

Di Rado, A. (1995, March 15). Trekking through college: Classes
explore modern society using the world of Star Trek. Los Angeles
     Times, p. A3.
Article from an Internet Database
(for more details, see the American Psychological Association‘s official site)

Mershon, D. H. (1998, November-December). Star Trek on the brain:
Alien minds, human minds. American Scientist, 86, 585. Retrieved
July 29, 1999, from Expanded Academic ASAP database.
Book

Okuda, M., & Okuda, D. (1993). Star Trek chronology: The history
of the future. New York: Pocket Books.
Book Article or Chapter

James, N. E. (1988). Two sides of paradise: The Eden myth according
to Kirk and Spock. In D. Palumbo (Ed.), Spectrum of the fantastic
(pp. 219-223). Westport, CT: Greenwood.
Encyclopedia Article

Sturgeon, T. (1995). Science fiction. In The encyclopedia Americana
(Vol. 24, pp. 390-392). Danbury, CT: Grolier.
ERIC Document

Fuss-Reineck, M. (1993). Sibling communication in Star Trek: The Next
Generation: Conflicts between brothers. Miami, FL: Annual Meeting
of the Speech Communication Association. (ERIC Document
Reproduction Service No. ED 364932)
Website
(for more details, see the American Psychological Association‘s official site)

Lynch, T. (1996). DS9 trials and tribble-ations review. Retrieved
October 8, 1997, from Psi Phi: Bradley’s Science Fiction Club
Web site: http://www.bradley.edu/campusorg/psiphi/DS9/ep/
503r.html

APA Style Electronic Formats

[First published in Business Communication Quarterly, March 1997, pp. 59-76. Online version completely revised, August 25, 2001 (last minor revision, October 5, 2001).]

The following formats and examples are offered as models for references that might appear in the text and in the “References” section (bibliography) of a business writer’s research paper. The formats are based on the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition (2001).  In the basic formats and examples presented, every effort has been made to maintain consistency with published APA formats. When no model format for a specific kind of electronic source could be found in the Publication Manual, I extrapolated a logical APA format. Below are special considerations for business writers using APA formats to cite electronic sources:

  • Avoid dividing an electronic address at the end of a line. If absolutely necessary, divide it at a slash (/) or before a period. (Although it might seem more logical to divide it after a period, APA style specifically states before a period.)
  • For the titles of books, use italics and “sentence-style” capitalization. This means that for a title only the first word, all proper nouns, and the first word after an internal colon are to be capitalized. (Example: How to make money in French and German stocks: Your personal guide)
  • For titles of magazines and journals, use italics and “headline” style capitalization. This means that the first letter of each important word should be capitalized. (Example: U.S. News & World Report)
  • For the titles of magazine and journal articles, do not use underlining, italics, or quotation marks. Use “sentence-style” capitalization. (Example for an article in a magazine: Jobs in jeopardy. Management Review)
  • APA suggests that writers citing Web items refer to specific Web site documents rather than to home or menu pages. APA also advises writers to strive to provide addresses (URLs) that are typed correctly and that work. Continually check your references to Web documents; if the addresses of any of those documents change, update your references before you submit your paper.
  • If an Internet document is undated, insert “(n.d.)” immediately after the document title.
  • E-mail messages may be cited in the text, but APA warns against listing them in the “References” section because such messages are unrecoverable.

An in-text citation should be placed in parentheses. If a specific page is being referenced, the citation should ideally include the author’s name, the date of publication, and the number of the specific page being referenced. Example: (Cheek & Buss, 1981, p. 332).  For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if available, preceded by the abbreviation “para.” Example: (Myers, 2000, para. 5). If neither paragraph nor page numbers are provided, direct the reader to the location of the referenced material by indicating the heading that precedes the material and, counting down from that heading, the number of the paragraph containing the material. Example:  (Beutler, 2000, “Conclusion” section, para. 1).

If an electronic document does not indicate the name of the author(s), refer to the document by repeating the first few words of its title. Example: (“Study finds,” 2001). If the information being referred to appears on an untitled Web page, indicate in the text of your paper where the reader is to look if he or she wishes to find a full reference to the Web site that contains that page. Example:

More companies today are using data mining to unlock hidden value in their data. The data mining program “Clementine,” described at the SPSS Web site, helps organizations predict market share and detect possible fraud (SPSS, n.d).

Readers of the preceding example will know to look for the complete citation under “SPSS” in the “References” section.

The following business-oriented examples are based on formats recommended in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Fifth Edition. APA promises to update its recommended formats at its Web site <http://www.apastyle.org/elecref.html&gt; when future changes in electronic media warrant such revisions.

1. INTERNET ARTICLE BASED ON A MAGAZINE OR JOURNAL PRINT SOURCE

Basic Form

Author(s). (Date–indicate “n.d.” if date is unknown). Title [Electronic version]. Magazine or Journal Title, volume (issue, if given), paging. [Add the date of retrieval and the URL only if you believe that the print version differs from the electronic version.]

Example

Honeycutt, E. D., Glassman, M., Zugelder, M. T., & Karande, K. ( 2001, July). Determinants of ethical behavior: A study of autosalespeople [Electronic version]. Journal of Business Ethics, 32 (1), 69-79.

2. ARTICLE IN AN INTERNET-ONLY MAGAZINE OR JOURNAL

Basic Form

Author(s). (Date). Title. Magazine or Journal Title, volume (issue), paging (if given). Retrieved [access date] from [URL]

Example

Jensen, S. (2000). Ethical underpinnings for multidisciplinary practice in the United States and abroad: Are accounting firms and law firms really different? Online Journal of Ethics, 3 (1). Retrieved August 20, 2001, from http://www.stthom.edu/cbes/ethunder.html

3. MAGAZINE OR JOURNAL ARTICLE FROM A DATABASE

Basic Form

Author(s). (Date). Title. Magazine or Journal Title, volume (issue), paging. Retrieved [date], from [database], Article No. (if given).

Example

Blackburn-Brockman, E. & Belanger, K. (2001, January). One page or two? A national study of CPA recruiters’ preferences for resume length. The Journal of Business Communication, 38 (1), 29. Retrieved June 20, 2001, from InfoTrac College Edition database, Article No. A71327300.

4. NEWSPAPER ARTICLE (ELECTRONIC VERSION AVAILABLE BY SEARCH)

Basic Form

Author(s). (Date). Title. Name of Newspaper. Retrieved [date] from [URL]

Example

Hilts, P. J. (1999, February 16). In forecasting their emotions, most people flunk out. New York Times. Retrieved November 21, 2000, from http://www.nytimes.com

5. INTERNET GOVERNMENT REPORT

Basic Form

Sponsoring agency. (Date). Title. (Publication data). Retrieved [date] from [name of organization and URL]

Example

U.S. General Accounting Office. (1997, February). Telemedicine: Federal strategy is needed to guide investments. (Publication No. GAO/NSAID/HEHS-97-67). Retrieved September 15, 2000, from General Accounting Office Reports Online via GPA Access: http://www.access.gpo.gov/su_docs/aces/aces160.shtml?/gao/index.html

6. STAND-ALONE INTERNET DOCUMENT (NO AUTHOR, NO DATE)

Basic Form

Document title or name of Web page. (n.d.) Retrieved [date] from [URL]

Example

GVU’s 8th WWW user survey. (n.d.). Retrieved August 8, 2000, from http://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-1997-10/

7. DOCUMENT FROM COMPLEX WEB SITE (AUTHOR[S] IDENTIFIED)

Basic Form

Author(s). (Date). Title. Retrieved [date] from [Host business, agency or program]: [URL]

Example

Gordon, C. H., Simmons, P., & Wynn, G. (2001). Plagiarism: What it is, and how to avoid it. Retrieved July 24, 2001, from Biology Program Guide 2001/2002 at the University of British Columbia Web site: http://www.zoology.ubc.ca/bpg/plagiarism.htm

8. NONPERIODICAL MULTIPAGE WEB DOCUMENT (NO AUTHOR, NO DATE)

Basic Form

Name of sponsoring organization or title of site. (Date). Document name. Retrieved [date] from [URL]

Example

Greater New Milford (Ct) Area Healthy Community 2000, Task Force on Teen and Adolescent Issues. (n.d.). Who has time for a family meal? You do! Retrieved October 5, 2000, from http://www.familymealtime.org

9. MESSAGE POSTED TO AN ONLINE FORUM OR DISCUSSION GROUP

Basic Form

Author(s). (Date of posting). Message subject line [Message ID]. Message posted to [group address]

Example

Weylman, C. R. (2001, September 4). Make news to achieve positive press [Msg. 98]. Message posted to http://groups.yahoo.com/group/sales-marketing-tips/message/98

10. MESSAGE POSTED TO A NEWSGROUP

Basic Form

Author(s). (Date of posting). Message subject line [Message ID]. Message posted to [newsgroup address]

Example

Yudkin, M. (2001, July 4). The marketing minute: Truth is always in season [Msg. ID: ruf6kt0aiu5eui6523qsrofhu70h21evoj@4ax.com]. Message posted to

news://biz.ecommerce

*Dr. Guffey is the author of Business Communication: Process and Product, 3e (South-Western College Publishing, 2000); Essentials of Business Communication, 5e (South-Western College Publishing, 2001); and Business English, 7e (South-Western College Publishing, 2002). She and Carolyn M. Seefer are co-authors of Essentials of College English, 2e (South-Western College Publishing, 2002).

by

Violence against Women Due to Inheritance

Complete Research Proposal

Introduction 

O you who believe! You are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should you treat them with harshness, that you may take away part of the dowry you have given them – except when they have become guilty of open lewdness. On the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. (Chapter 4: verses 19)

The inequality of women’s status and rights at all levels of society and discrimination against them in several forms remain a matter of serious concern world-over, particularly in Pakistan. A majority of women in Pakistan live in a world structured around strict religious, family and tribal customs that essentially force them often to live in “Char Divari,”1 submission and overall fear. They are subjected to discrimination and violence on a daily basis due to the cultural and religious norms.

The ritual of Karo-Kari  , Vani or Soowa  , Watta Satta (exchange marriages), marriages with Quran and the problems of dowry and divorce still haunt the mind of any woman who belongs to Pakistan especially its rural areas. In organizations and educational institutions people are still facing difficulty in accepting women as an asset towards development. A woman is expected to play her role in the house only. Workingwomen are not looked upon with respect in society. They are not getting due credit for their contribution towards development.

People married their daughter with Quran due to many reasons but the most haunting one is that they want to retain their properties and do not support to inherit it to their daughters basically they are afraid when they marry their daughter, they think that now she is not the part of their family and after wards her husband forced their daughter to claim her right of inheritance. So they married their daughter with Quran that the property remains in their hand.

Violence

According to Babylon English Dictionary, violence is a rough unwarranted force, an injurious treatment, and vehemence of expression.

So for as violence against women is concerned, we can say that violence against women is any rough unwarranted force, injurious treatment against women.

Types of Violence

There are many different types of violence. The types that are included in the category of domestic violence and its affected age groups are;

Form of Violence
• Physical
• Sexual
• Verbal
• Psychological/emotional
• Spiritual
• Economic
• Social
Affected Age Group
• Child abuse
• Spousal abuse
• Elder abuse

Any of these types of violence can occur anywhere. ‘Domestic violence’ as a term relates to violence committed within the home. Majority of family violence is committed by adult men using violence as a means of control over their partners, i.e. adult women. The following link provides some information on the definitions of these different types of violence.

Abuse

Systematic pattern of behaviors in a relationship that are used to gain and/or maintain control and power over another.
Emotional Abuse
Emotional abuse includes;
•  hurting another’s feelings by saying cruel, unfair comments,
•  cursing, swearing and/or screaming at the other,
•  repeated harassment, interrogation or degradation,
•  attacks on self-esteem and/or insults to your person (name-calling, put-downs,

ridicule),

•attacks on and/or insults about people the other person cares for, your family and

friends,
•threatening to “come out for you” at work or to your family,
•controlling and/or limiting another’s behavior (e.g., restraining from using the phone

or

seeing friends, having the room or the house, following and

monitoring or limiting phone conversations, checking the mileage on the car, or

restraining from reading material, ideas, activities and places that she does not like),
•interrupting while eating, forcing to stay awake or to get up from

sleep,
•blaming for everything that goes wrong,
•forcing to do degrading things (e.g.: to beg for money),
•using the difference in physical strength to intimidate,
•criticizing thoughts, feelings, opinions, beliefs and actions,
•treating like a servant or “underling” in matters of household chores and decisions,
•being extremely jealous, constantly accusing of flirting or of cheating,
•spitting at or near the other,
•using money to control the other(e.g.: taking money from you, giving you an allowance,

controlling how extra money is spent, forcing you to ask for and account for any money

you get, and acting like the work you do at home is of no economic value to the family),
•telling you that you are “sick” and need therapy, or
•using physical disabilities against you or putting you down for your disability.

Psychological Abuse

Psychological abuse is any threat to do bodily harm to a partner, a child, a family member, a friend, a pet, or one’s own self (suicide). Psychological abuse involves not only hurt and anger, but also fear and degradation. The purpose of psychological abuse is to render you emotionally insecure about your own self-worth and to render you helpless and/or not able to escape further physical, sexual and/or psychological abuse.

Examples include a partner;
• threatening to punch, hit, slap or kick,
• threatening to use a weapon,
• threatening to harm him/her-self if you leave,
• threatening to punish children to “get back” at you,
• threatening to harm pets,
• throwing objects in your direction,
• vague threats such as: “You’re going to get it,” or “I’m really going to let you have it,”

Physical Abuse

Physical abuse is any forceful or violent physical behavior.

Examples include slapping, choking, punching, kicking, pinching, pushing, shoving, biting, spanking, scratching, grabbing, burning, restraining or spitting.
Other behaviors in this category include throwing objects at the partner, or using or threatening to use a weapon of any kind (stick, ruler, belt, whip, knife, spoon, gun…).

Domestic abuse

“Domestic abuse” means;
• Inflicting or attempting to inflict physical injury on an adult or minor by other than accidental means,
• Placing an adult in fear of physical harm, physical restraint, or malicious damage his/her personal property.

“Victims” are adults or minors who:
• Are current or former spouses
• Live together or have done so
• Are dating or have dated, or have or had an emotional or sexual relationship
• Are related by blood or adoption

Islamic Inheritance

A source of significant controversy both inside and outside the Muslim community is the Islamic law of inheritance. This “law” is in fact a continuing process of interpretation of Quranic rules and principles to form the complex “laws” of inheritance under Islam. It is a dynamic process, which, based on specific text in the Quran and traditions of the Prophet Muhammad, and continues to be discussed in each Islamic age by Muslim scholars addressing changing issues and times.

Before delving into this complicated and controversial area, one must first realize that Islam revolutionized women’s inheritance rights. Prior to the Quranic injunction — and indeed in the west until only recently — women could not inherit from their relatives, and in the case of Arabia at least, were themselves bequeathed as if they were property to be distributed at the death of a husband, father, or brother. Thus, Islam, by clearly stating in the Quran that women have the right to inherit for themselves, changed the status of women in an unprecedented fashion. The Quran states:

“Men shall have a share in what parents and kinsfolk leave behind, and women shall have a share in what parents and kinsfolk leave behind.” (Quran 4:7).

Thus, whether women can inherit at all is not the controversy. Rather, the dispute centers around the “share” that is to be inherited.

The same chapter of the Quran goes on to state in detail the division of property based on the number of relatives and the level of kinship of the inheritor. (See Quran 4:11) The injunction that a male relative receives a share equal to that of two females applies only to the inheritance of children by their parents. Parents who inherit from a deceased child, for example, each inherit one-sixth of the property if a child of his or her own survives the deceased child. In that instance, the division is equal between the mother and the father of the deceased. The verse then states what the mother shall receive if the deceased left no children or if the deceased left siblings. Presumably, the father and the mother inherit equally in those situations. The rationale behind a brother receiving double his sister’s share, on the other hand, is based on the Islamic legal presumption that he has an obligation to provide for her support. Bearing in mind that these verses were revealed in Arabia over 1400 years ago, when women had no financial security other than what was provided by men, these verses demonstrate the care and respect given to the family unit, and ensured that women’s rights would continue to be protected. Hence, brothers having sisters were given larger shares than their sisters, along with the legal obligation to spend a portion of this wealth on those sisters.

Within the field of Islamic scholarship, there is much discussion on the topic of inheritance. There are scholars who argue that these rules apply only if no will was left by the deceased and that the division can be changed by a will. Presumably, the will would be analogous to a debt and would be paid prior to any other disbursement of property. (See Quran 4:11; Fathi Osman, Muslim Women in the Family and in the Society, at 24-25.) Furthermore, a tradition of the Prophet Muhammad states that a person can will up to one-third of his or her property in any manner, thus allowing equalization of gender-based default presumptions. (It should be noted that a majority of the Sunni schools of thought state that the one-third share cannot be bequeathed to natural heirs; however, others, including the Shiite school, disagree with this limitation.) Moreover, transfers of property can be made during the life of the testator.

Majority of schools argue that the verses provide guidance as to who should be provided for and at what level. Furthermore, there are scholars who maintain that these laws are applicable only in an Islamic-based legal system and government where a woman would have recourse against a relative who was obligated to provide for her but failed to do so. One may argue that in the absence of a complete application of Islamic law, where the rights of women will have no teeth, Muslims should turn to the spirit of that law, which is justice, and find ways to accomplish this goal. This is especially true where Muslims are a minority, as in the United States. Muslim scholars, legislators, and researchers must — and are beginning to — boldly address this issue to focus on these challenges. The Islamic laws of inheritance are, like all issues in Islamic law, a dynamic process that must respond to the many challenges and opportunities that world changes present.

Statement of the Problem 

The study is focused at knowing the different forms of inheritance violence exist in the society, why it exists, what are the basic reasons of the violence against women. The study will be conducted to know specifically the violence against women due to the right in property given to the women by Islamic law and Pakistani law, which are actually implemented or not in our society.

Objectives of the study

  • To know the types of violence due to inheritance
  • To study the persons involved in violence
  • To find out the effects of violence on women
  • To know in which family structure such violence exists.

Significance of the Study 

This research could be very useful in identifying the types of violence faced by women due to inheritance problem. It will be very effective to create awareness among people of society that exist such evils and their reasons. Such problems are considered as family problems and other legal authorities do not take them seriously. However, it seems a totally personal and family problem, but due to this inheritance women are facing different kinds of violence both in real and in law. It will be helpful to diagnose types of violence faced by women due to inheritance and give some recommendation how to take such problems. The research gives a complete picture of every legal aspect of Pakistani and Islamic law of inheritance and in actually what is being implemented in Pakistan. It will differentiate both in laws if any. To sum up, it will really assist the women to have awareness in this context thoroughly.

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

POPULATION DESCRIPTION 

As our topic is “violence against women due to inheritance”, which is going to identify which type of violence exists and why it exists, that is why, in our population, we select the married women of Saman abad.

SAMPLE SIZE

From population, we will select 30 women from our population..

SAMPLING PROCEDURE

In our research, we will use convenient sampling technique.

PROCEDURE FOR DATA COLLECTION

For data collection, we will use questionnaire for our women population, which is a blend of open and closed ended questions.

REFRENCES

1. Amnesty International, “Pakistan: Violence Against Women in the Name of Honor,”

(New York, September 1999) ASA 33/17/99

2. Annual Report 2000-2001, National Commission on the Status of Women (NCSW)

3. “Women in Pakistan, Murdered in the Name of Honor,” located at ww.aiusa.org/women.     4. The Holy Quran

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