Physical, Social and Financial Problems of Females using Various Methods of Contraception

Introduction

Birth control is considered very important for economic development of a nation. Being able to control reproductive functioning is a very necessary component of career preparation and family growth management.

Women have attempted to control their fertility status throughout the history but these methods or techniques were not medicated. Egyptian history indicates that females made a concoction of different acids or compounds that were inserted into the vigina in paste form. It is called early form of diaphragm. Greeks also followed these methods but their medication was different than Egyptian females. Females used different types of teas, juices, septic solutions, to avoid the unwanted pregnancies. Stones were also placed in uterus to protect from pregnancies. This method is an example of modern Intra Uterine Devices (IUD). Early attempts at spermicides agents included different mixtures of acid, juices, honey, alcohol and vinegar. These methods are also used now days but now these methods are in modern form. There are different methods available to control unwanted pregnancies. (Alexander, n.d.).

Pakistan is one of those countries, which are suffering from high population growth rate problems. Pakistan’s population growth rate is 1.98 %( est) (CIA, World Bank fact book, 2004), which is considered dangerous not only for economic growth but also harmful for women’s reproductive health. According to the United Nations projection, Pakistan’s population growth will be over 380 millions by the year 2050. (Rosen, 1996)

To control the population growth rate, family planning program was found in 1953 in Pakistan as a part of International Family Planning Movement. In 1960, General Ayub Khan, the head of Pakistan’s Military Government, took keen interest in family planning and the clinics started providing rarely family planning services. In 1965, Government of Pakistan established a National Family Planning Program with separate clinics infrastructure. Contraceptive use was just 6% in 1969. A continuous motivation system was introduced nation wide in this regard in 1973. But Government was unable to recruit sufficient number of qualified motivators. Another strategy was launched with assistance from USAID, a big donor agency, in 1974.

Its objective was to distribute contraceptives through shopkeepers, clinics and fields workers. A survey was conducted to check the rate of usage of contraceptive methods. But its use was virtually unchanged from 1969 levels. These programs were shut down in 1977 when the military Government of Zia ul Haq took power. However in 1980, Zia’s Government restarted the population program and this program was transferred from Ministry of Health to Ministry of Planning and Development. In 1985, contraceptive use raised slightly to 9%. Now the Government has set up the Non Governmental Organizations Coordinating Councils (NGOCC) to help and mobilize the private voluntarily sector in population’s activities.

The social marketing of contraceptives, which started in 1986, gained momentum in the 1990s. Despite some setbacks, social marketing has probably improved accessibility of contraceptives in urban areas. (Sathar, Zeba, 1998).  It was only 12% contraceptive use in1991. Prime Minister Banazir Bhutto launched Community Health Workers Program in 1993. An International Conference on Population and Development was held in Cairo, in 1995. Banazir Bhutto attended this conference and spoke of her dream of Pakistan “where every pregnancy is planned, and every child is nurtured, loved, educated and supported”. The contraceptive prevalence rose to 18% in 1995. (Rosen, 1996).

In social marketing, radio and television played an important role and started campaigns promoting family planning. Both radio and television have picked up momentum, in term of their frequency and the explicitness of the message. The percentage of women who reported that they had heard or seen a family planning massages more than doubled between the 1990-91 and the1994-95, exceeding 60 percent in the latter surveys. The radio and television messages legitimize family planning practice and offered concrete information about how contraceptive can be obtained. An analysis comparing the impact of information, education, and communication programs in Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan has shown substantial improvements in the reach of family planning messages in the Pakistan media and in their association with contraceptive adoption (Zeba, 1998). Contraceptive prevalence rate in Pakistan was 27.6% in 2002. (Pearls, 2002)

There are different mechanisms for contraception available in Pakistan including condoms, oral pills, spermicidal, diaphragms, sponged etc. Generally females experience side effects when they use contraception methods. These side effects are bleeding problems which include heavy prolonged and irregular periods; spotting or constant bleeding or short cycles, abdominal pain, colic, burning, nausea, diarrhea, loss or increased appetite, dizziness, headache, flushed, nervousness, depression, insomnia and blurred vision.

Pakistan Government has involved many NGOs in promoting family planning awareness and in providing family planning services and has developed many mechanisms. But no one method is perfect that can protect women’s health and is effective for prevention of unwanted pregnancies.

In addition to side effects, there are also social hurdles in using contraceptive method. There are at least six components which contribute to the cost of contraception for users: the monetary cost of purchasing contraceptives; the search cost of acquiring information about methods and where to purchase them; the time and travel costs of obtaining them; the costs associated with side effects of use; the variety-constraint cost of not getting one’s preferred method; and the psychic costs of using contraceptives despite perceived social disapproval.

John B. Casterline (1996) conducted a study in Pakistan about obstacles to contraceptive use and concluded that husband’s opposition, fear of side effects, no access to contraceptive services, religious unacceptability of contraceptive use is the main obstacles to contraceptive use in Pakistan.

There are different kinds of barriers to family planning services uses. The greatest obstacles are psychosocial barrier, which includes opposition of religion. There is a debate about whether family planning Islamic or not. Husband’s opposition against contraception, low level of education of females in Pakistan, low level of decision making power of females and prevalence of purdah system contribute in this regard. Women who can go to neighbors easily r out side the home have great personal freedom to utilize family planning services particularly those who required permission from their husbands. The perception of people that family planning services are of poor quality and fear of using services due to reports of bad experience of others is another barrier. Although there are many facilities for females to choose and use contraceptive but the cost of transport and absence from household economic activities become a significant barrier for poor households. Most Pakistani females have no access to media, although social marketing of contraceptives have increased rapidly in Pakistan in 1990’s and as a result women have better access to media and they are more aware about contraception. (Casterline, 1996: Rosen, 1996: Stephenson, 2004)

1.1. Statement of the problem

This study aims to know about the physical, social and financial problems of females using various methods of contraception like condoms, oral pills, spermicidal, diaphragms, sponges etc.

This study explored in detail that why women use contraceptive methods in limited numbers. It also highlighted the subsequent available contraceptives and indicated n how women use these methods and their effects on health their females.

1.2. Objectives of the study

The study aims to:

  • find out the perceptions of females about contraceptive methods.
  • identify the contraceptive methods mostly used by females.
  • find out the financial problems faced by females using contraceptive methods.
  • identify the social problems faced by females using contraceptive methods.
  • find out the physical changes and problems faced by females using contraceptive methods .
  • find out the extent of choice of females in contraceptive methods usage.
  • solicit suggestions from females to improve the services of family planning.

1.3. Significance of the study 

The research will deal with the opinions, hurdles, preferences and perceptions related to contraceptive adoption by females. This may help the Government for policy making, social health associations and people to find out easy ways to use contraceptives and to make its services practical for them to obtain and use contraceptives continuously.

This study proposes the ultimate goal of expanding access to reproductive health services through an increased choice in the appropriate methods of fertility regulation. A research strategy may be proposed to understand how; especially women appraise different contraceptive methods and their attributes. More specifically how users and potential users assess their particular needs and weigh the different characteristics of available methods to choose and subsequently continue to use a method. Such an understanding may shed light on the future demand for specific methods or any method, on the need for information and programmatic intervention and on the development or modifications of contraceptive methods. The study will also highlight the social barriers, which influence the usage of contraception.

1.4.Operational definitions of variables

1.4.1. Contraception

Contraception is a specified term for any procedure used to prevent fertilization of an ovum. There are different methods of contraception that are used in this regard. This study will include all methods, which have been used by the respondents.

1.4.2. Social problems

Social problems mean that:

  • Is there any restriction for females to use contraceptive methods from their family or relatives?
  • Are the behaviors of people hurdle for females to use contraceptive methods?

1.4.3. Financial problems

Financial problems are that the contraceptive methods are expensive and females cannot afford these methods in their limited financial resources.

1.4.4. Physical changes

Physical changes mean that females feel some changes in their body because of contraceptive usage. These changes are not comfortable for the body of a female.

1.5. Methodology

This research was a quantitative in nature and was a survey research.

1.5.1. Population

The population of the study was married contraceptive female users coming to the government hospitals for advice or treatment about contraceptive methods, living in Lahore city.

1.5.2. Sample of the study

Sample of the study was 100 married contraceptive female users visiting government hospitals in Lahore for advice or treatment about contraceptive methods. Four hospitals namely; Ganga Ram hospital Lahore, General hospital Lahore, Lady Willington hospital and Mayo hospital Lahore selected conveniently. Twenty-five respondents from each hospital selected conveniently.

1.5.3. Instrument for the study

Data collected through questionnaire.  Questions were both close-ended and open-ended. The questionnaire drafted keeping in view the objectives of the study and will include questions on the physical, financial and social problems of females using contraceptive techniques. The researchers administered the questionnaire personally to ensure maximum return.

1.5.4. Piloting of the study

Five females selected for the piloting of the study to remove the ambiguities in questionnaire, instrument of the study.

1.5.5. Delimitations of the study

ü  The study was delimited only in Lahore city.

ü  The other limitation of the study was that the respondents of the study were only those females who came to the government hospital.

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A Study of Factors Leading Women to Prostitution

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The present study is an effort to take up prostitution as a social issue, which deviate women from honored status of mother, wife, and daughter, to a cheap commodity who need respect and love from society. The research will identify reasons for society’s negative attitudes towards prostitutes and an acceptable attitude towards men visiting red light areas. The study will also suggest the measures to improve the situation.

 

Statement of the problem

The present study aims to know the causes and means of women entering into prostitution. The research will also help in understanding the social status of prostitutes in their own words i.e. either they are getting respect and rights as other citizens of society or not? The study will also explore the views about adjustment to their roles.

Objectives of the study

The major objectives of the study will be to;

explore the reasons that lead women to prostitution.

know various forms of prostitution adopted by women in brothels.

know prostitute’s perception about the attitude of the society towards them.

suggest measures about adjustment to their roles.

 

Significance of the study

The study under consideration encompasses the reasons of women for becoming prostitutes. Although many researches have been carried out on this topic but no such work has been done which could focus on the prostitute’s point of view. The research will explore the social attitudes towards prostitutes from a prostitute’s point of view. It will help in identifying the dual attitudes of the society.

 

This is a very sensitive topic as it is generally said that it is a hidden world realities of the world. The study will go into the depth of hidden world realities & will provide information about the factors leading women to prostitution. The result of the study will open up a window of people’s perception who blame on” immoral woman” being responsible for tracking” honest man”. The study will also help to reduce prostitution by suggesting measures.

 

Hypotheses

 

Ho 1:  There is no significant association between social factors and women becoming prostitutes.

Hi: There is significant association between social factors and women becoming prostitutes.

 

Ho 2: There is no significant association between poverty and women becoming prostitutes.

Hi: There is significant association between poverty and women becoming prostitutes.

. . . Complete thesis is available.

Divorce

When a man and a woman bind themselves together by tying the knot of marriage, they cherish the hope of living together for the whole of the rest of their lives.  Then, when nature blesses their union with a child, it strengthens the bond of marriage, providing a guarantee of its greater depth and stability.  On the basis of data collected in western countries, the Encyclopaedia Britannica of 1984 confirms this with the statement that “children couples tend to have a higher divorce rate than couples with children.”

A divorce court judge in the West holds that “every little youngster born to a couple is an added assurance that their marriage will never be dissolved in a divorce court.”

Inspite of these apparently favorable psychological factors and natural, traditional attachments of parents and children, the rising incidence of divorce is a new and observable phenomenon of the modern world.  One of the most important contributing factors is the ease with which women can now make a living.  On this the Encyclopaedia Britannica says: “Industrialization has made it easier for women to support themselves, whether they are single, married, divorced, or widowed.  In this connection, it is interesting to not that the Great Depression of the 1930s stopped the rise in the number of divorces in theUnitedStatefor a time.”

In the modern age, western civilization has been beset by many problems, many of which are more artificial than real.  In many things western civilization has adopted unnatural ways, thus giving rise to unnatural problems.  The matter has further been worsened by attempts to solve them unnaturally.  Problems have thus gone on increasing instead of decreasing.  The problem of divorce is one of them.  The initial stimulus of the women’s liberation movement in the West was not wrong, but its leader did not care to define its limits.  In a bid to make a free society, their efforts culminated in the creation of a permissive society.  Affairs between men and women knew no limits and this had the effect of weakening the marriage bond.  Men and women were no more husbands and wives.  In the words of the Prophet they became sensual, pleasure seeking people. This state of affairs was given a boost by industrialization, as a woman could easily procure an independent livelihood for herself.  This had never before been possible.  Because of this, she has frequently refused to live under the guardianship of men which, in consequence has created a large number of social problems leading to greatly increased rates of divorce.

The western philosophers who wanted to check divorce advocated legal curbs upon men, which would legally bind them to provide maintenance to the wife after the divorce.  This maintenance sum was fixed according to western living standards, so that, in most cases, divorce meant that the man had to part with a fair amount of his hard earned money for the whole of the rest of his life.

A victim of this unnatural state of affairs was Lord  Bertrand Russell,  one of the most intelligent and outstanding intellectuals of his time.  Soon after his marriage, he discovered that his wife no longer inspired any feelings of love in him.  Although realizing this incompatibility, he did not seek an immediate separation.  In spite of severe mental torture he tried to bear with this situation for ten years.  He refers to this period as one of “darkest despair.”  Finally he had to separate and remarry, but he was not satisfied even with the second match and he married for a third time.  Two divorces were a costly bargain.  According to English law, the amount of alimony and maintenance he had to pay his wives upset him greatly.  He writes in his Autobiography:

….. the financial burden was heavy and rather disturbing: I had given Pounds 10,000 of my Nobel Prize cheque for a little more than Pounds 11,000 to my third wife,  and I was now paying alimony to her and to my second wife as well as paying for the education of my younger son.  Added to this, there were heavy expenses in connection with my elder son’s illness; and the income taxes which for many years he had neglected to pay now fell to me to pay.

Such a law had been passed in order to ensure justice for women who had to resort to divorce.   But when people began to realize that divorce inevitably led one into financial straits, the marriage bond  began to be dispensed with altogether. Men and women simply started to live together without going through the formality of the marriage ceremony.  Now more than fifty percent of the younger generation prefer to live in an unmarried state.

It was only natural that a reaction should have set in against a law, which so patently disfavored men and brought corruption, perversion and all kinds of misery in its wake.  Children – even newborn babies – were the greatest sufferers.

Now take the situation prevailing in Hindu society, in which the extreme difficulty of divorce acts as a deterrent.  Obviously this was a bid to reform, but this has served only to aggravate the matter.  The ancient Indian religious reformers  held that separation was illegal they even prohibited women from remarrying, so that they would be left with no incentive to seek divorce.  The laws were made in such a way that one marriage ceremonies were finalized,  neither could a man divorce his wife, nor was it possible for a woman to remarry after leaving her former husband.

….more 40 pages are available to continue this topic

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Attitude of Male and Female Teachers towards their Male and Female Students at University Level

Introduction

University is a unit comprising students and administrative and clerical staff. All these function in a supposedly harmonious way with a sense of belongingness. Hence it is possible to understand their relations with one another on the basis of mutual needs and expectations. The whole machinery of university administration exists primarily for students’ sake.

Students at university level are expected as persons having a sense of good degree of maturity. At this level students learn through teachers’ lectures, books and classroom discussions, their thinking develop through interaction of teachers. Hence at this point it is necessary to analyze the teacher’s attitude towards their students. At university level, where co-education prevails, boys and girls behave differently, according to gender roles ascribed to them. At this level, teachers also treat them differently. So teachers’ attitude towards male and female students is different within the classrooms.

An attitude is an attraction and aversion towards an object, in which cognitive affective, motivational and behavioral process are implicated. The attraction or aversion is the effective component of an attitude and our beliefs or knowledge is structures about object and events are the cognitive component (Hilgard, 1975).

Attitude of teachers towards their students are multidimensional and there are interesting aspects of attitude of teachers towards male and female students. Teachers’ attitude is a set of components such as cognitive, effective, motivational and behavioral. These components are arisen from society other than cognitive, e.g. family, peer and community etc. and cognitive components are arisen from teachers’ inner-self.

Classroom of any society depicts norms and values. It encourages sex roles stereotyped forms of communication, independence, dominance, assumptions of leadership, in which males have been trained to excel (Wendy, 1992).

In classrooms, teachers set the standard for discourse. Their reliance on teaching methods that adheres to traditional norms and beliefs about gender differences and that benefit only males’ students (Sandler, 1982).

In classrooms, teachers set the standard of discourse. Their reliance on teaching methods that adhere to traditional norms and beliefs about gender differences that benefit only male students (Kramaera, 1990). Hall and Sadler believe that women are disadvantaged in colleges because of professors’ differential treatment towards students by gender. For example, instructors may interrupt female students more than male students, and they may recall male students name more often or give them more eyes-contact (Hall, 1982). Teachers believing participate is an indicator of learning, they likely to ignore females because they participate less than males. Moreover teachers are often unaware that they are concentrating on teaching males because the process of classroom interaction is unconscious and the respond automatically to male students. Male students are more active in class discussions as compared to female students (Gender biased education, www. edchange. org/multicultural/papers/genderbias.html).

Despite genuine efforts by parents and teachers to create a better environment for girls in the education system, barriers to learning persist and gender inequity continues to flourish. Numerous studies showed that teachers often treat boys and girls differently. According to a research, done by Pearson (1991) it was concluded that male students receive more of the teachers attention and are given more time to talk in class from pre-school through college. Myra and David Sadker s’ book, “Failing at Fairness” points out the girls are the three time less likely to be praised by teachers (Sadker, 1994). Research has also found that student-teacher interaction in science classes is biased toward boys and that when students are grouped by ability in mathematics classes, boys are more likely to be called on in class by their teachers, and teachers ask boys more higher order questions than girls (Gender equity in education: is it possible?  ri.essortment.com/genderequityed_reog.html)”

Analysis of classroom discussions in different settings revealed that boys took three times more turns of speaking then girls did (Redpath, 1989). A study of college age students demonstrated that men dominate discussions even more as they get older, in some classes speaking as much as12 times longer then women (Krupnich, 1985). Even when female do participate in class discussion, their approach may suggest to teachers that they command over some subjects / topics than males. Girls are more likely to asked questions, acknowledge the comments of previous speakers, and refrain from interrupting the speakers unlike the male students do. In other words, this classroom conduct is consonant with accepted sex – roles behavior of society (Hendrick, 1989).

In comprising the participation patterns of males and females, teachers are apt to treat females’ discourse, to parallel sex – role differences in society; teachers unconsciously pass on negative expectations for girls (SandlerB, 1989). In addition to poor teacher training, cultural stereotypes and expectations of girls that diminish their self – esteem and confidence continue to cheat girls out of the education they deserve. The differences in achievement between boys and girls often come from different expectations for success and different experiences (Gender equity in education is possible? ri.essortment .com / genderequity_ reog,htm).

In classroom, female students prefer to use a conversational style that fosters group consensus and build ideas on top of one another; the interrelationship of thoughts and actions are paramount. Male students conversely, learn through arguments and individual activity, behavior fostered early. Most classroom discourse is organized to accommodate learning pattern for males (Ong, 1989). According to Boersma female teachers offer long responses to students (Boersma, 1981). Constantipole reported that professors expand upon male students comments more often (Constantipole, 1988). One study showed that women professors more often know students and call them by name, where as male professors are thought to use more offensive humor and make more offensive comments (Crawford, 1990).

In Pakistani society, classrooms also depict norms and values. These encourage sex-roles stereotypes prevailing in society just as teachers in Pakistan assigned different roles and responsibilities to female and male students e.g.; girls are assigned with indoor activities as they do at their houses and boys with outdoor activities within the classrooms, as they do for their houses. Some teachers treat girls considering them suitable in traditional gender roles. Teachers at university level unlike the teachers at schools and colleges have different attitude towards students. At university level teachers used teaching method which is more based on discussion on relevant topics. Teachers and students at this level interaction students learn through discussion with their teachers and get influence of their personalities. Teachers influence their students by their thoughts and ideas rather than formal teaching style.

The present study aims to explore the situation in our society, either Pakistani teachers conduct gender biased behavior or not, at high levels of education.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The study aims to explore the attitude of male and female teachers towards their male and female students at university level.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


The objectives of the study are to:

1.         Explore the attitude of male and female teachers towards their male and female students at university level

2.         Find out whether male and female teachers encourage male students more than female students during classroom discussions.

3.         Explore whether there is more discipline in the class during the lecture of male teachers as compared to female teachers’ lecture.

4.         Investigate whether male and female teachers assign indoor activities to female students and outdoor activities to male students within the class.

complete thesis is available…